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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Meta- analysis

statistic process which averages the results of a large number of studies to determine an overall level of effectiveness

Modern psychosurgery techniques have been used to treat...

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, bi-polar disorder, and major depression

rational-emotive-behavioral therapy (REBT); Ellis

Irrational beliefs about unpleasant experiences that foster negative emotions and maladaptive behaviors

diathesis-stress model

originally developed as a framework for understanding schizophrenia, holds that some psychological disorders arise from a combination of a vulnerability/predisposition to a disorder and stressful events.

prefrontal lobotomy

-A psychosurgery technique

-was thought to control a person’s violent and aggressive tendencies by disconnecting the thalamus from the higher brain centers of the cerebral cortex.

Absolutist thinking



A vulnerability or predisposition to a particular disorder

Diathesis-stress model

abnormal behavior problem involve the interaction of a predisposition AND stressful life events/experiences.

downward drift hypothesis

attempt to explain the link between low socioeconomic status & behavior problems

suggests that problem behavior lead people to drift downward in social status

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Used to treat severe depression by administering electrical shock to the head

Moden psychodynamic approach

Ego psychology: focuses more on the conscious striving of the ego, than on the unconscious functions of the id.

How do we define abnormal behavior?

Psychological disorder–Abnormal behavior pattern that involves a disturbance of psychological functioning or behavior.

*Abnormal Psych focuses on: describing, explaining, predicting, and treating(or evaluating) treatment for a particular disorder

Medical mod: driving force in the US. because driven by amer. Physiatric ass, who are doctors so they are focused on a medical perspective

-biological perspective, viewed as a underlying illness

How many people are affected by a mental health disorder?

40% are directly impacted by a mental health disorder in their lifetime in America.

Us is the highest among other countries

Females are more likely to fall under a mood disorder category

Young ppl (18-25) more affected by psychological disorders (verses older ppl) (brain is still developing)

Criteria for Determining Abnormality

1. Unusualness (within culture)
2. Social deviance (is it deviant from social norms)
3. Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality 4. Significant personal distress

5. Maladaptive or self-defeating behavior (ex: cutting)

6. Dangerousness (Ex: "shoot me" to the police / or drunk driving on purpose)

Cultural Bases of Abnormal Behavior

The standards we use in making judgments of abnormal behavior must take into account cultural norms

The Demonological Model

Trephination–A harsh, prehistoric practice of cutting a hole in a person’s skull, possibly in an attempt to release demons.

was prominent in Western society until the Age of Enlightenment.

Origins of Medical Model

Humors – According to the ancient Hippocratic belief system, the vital bodily fluids (phlegm, black bile, blood, yellow bile).

An imbalance of humors, he thought, accounted for abnormal behavior.

Humors (explain each)

Humors = bodily fluids

1. Phlegm: Cold, Sluggish

2. Black Bile: depression. melancholia

3. Blood: cheerful, mania, confident

4. Yellow bile: quick tempered, anti-social

Leading to our current medical model

Medieval Times beliefs

Belief in supernatural causes led to beliefs that abnormal behaviors were a sign of possession by evil spirits or the devil.

The Church’s treatment of choice for possession was exorcism

Who argues the people who behave abnormally suffer from diseases and should be treated humanely during the

Reform Movement

Jean-Baptiste Pussin and Philippe Pinel

Dorothea Dix tried fixing the conditions of the asylums (As a result of her efforts, 32 mental hospitals devoted to treating people with psychological disorders were established throughout the United States.)


A late 1950s policy of shifting the burden of care from state hospitals to community-based treatment setting in order to reform mental health system.

Dementia praecox

The term given by Kraepelin to the disorder now called schizophrenia.

Biological Perspective


The Psychological Perspective

Jean-Martin Charcot experimented with the use of hypnosis in treating hysteria, (a condition characterized by paralysis or numbness that cannot be explained by any underlying physical cause)

Psychodynamic model: abnormal behavior is viewed as the product of clashing forces within the personality.

The Sociocultural Perspective

-causes of abnormal behavior may be found in the failures of society rather than in the person. (such as: poverty, unemployment, injustice, etc)

- Society affects the success of a person

factors also focus on relationships between mental health and social factors such as gender, social class, ethnicity, and lifestyle.

The Biopsychosocial Perspective

Covers all other 7 major perspectives in this model: Behaviorism, humanist, cognitive, biological, evolutionary, psychodynamic, social


The Scientific Method

Formulating a research question.

Framing the research question in the form of a hypothesis.

Testing the hypothesis.

Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis.

4 limits to Confidentially

4 limits to confidentiality:
1. Harm to self (ex: suicide)

2. Harm to others (ex: terrorist)
3. Child Abuse (SCAR: suspected child abuse report)

4. Elderly abuse (ombudsonm)

The Experimental Method

Experimental group – In an experiment, a group that receives the experimental treatment.

Control group – In an experiment, a group that does not receive the experimental treatment.

Random assignment – A method of assigning research subjects at random to experimental or control groups to balance these groups on the characteristics of people that comprise them.

Selection factor – A type of bias in which differences between experimental and control groups result from differences in the type of participants in the groups, not from the independent variable.

Internal, External, Construct validity

Internal validity – The degree to which manipulation of the independent variables can be causally related to changes in the dependent variables.

External validity – The degree to which experimental results can be generalized to other settings and conditions.

Construct validity – The degree to which treatment effects can be accounted for by the theoretical mechanisms (constructs) represented in the independent variables.

Epidemiological studies



Research studies that track rates of occurrence of particular disorders among different population groups.

Incidence – The number of new cases of a disorder that occurs within a specific period of time.

Prevalence – The overall number of cases of a disorder in a population within a specific period of time.

Genotype, Phenotype, Proband

Genotype–The set of traits specified by an individual’s genetic code.

Phenotype–An individual’s actual or expressed traits.

Proband–The case first diagnosed with a given disorder.

A-B-A-B reversal Design

Controls confounding variables to see if the treatment is really working

treatment is often more effective when...

treatments are combined

comorbid diagnoses

Ex: Suffers from both schizophrenia and depression

What percentage of Americans experience a diagnosable psychological disorder in any given year?


Neurons (structure)

Dendrites–The root like structures at the ends of neurons that receive messages from other neurons.

Axon – The long, thin part of a neuron along which nerve impulses travel.

Terminals–The small branching structures a tthe tips of axons.

Neurotransmitters–Chemical substances that transmit messages from one neuron to another.

Synapse–The junction between one neuron and another across which neurotransmitters pass.

Receptor site–Apart of a dendrite on a receiving neuron that is structured to receive a neurotransmitter.




Medulla–An area of the hind brain involved in regulation of heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure.

Pons–A structure in the hind brain involved in body movements, attention, sleep, and respiration.

Cerebellum–A structure in the hind brain involved in motor behavior, coordination, and balance.

Reticular activating system



Reticular activating system–Brain structure involved in processes of attention, sleep, and arousal.

Thalamus–A structure in the forebrain involved in relaying sensory information to the cortex and in processes related to sleep and attention.

Hypothalamus–A structure in the forebrain involved in regulating body temperature, emotion, and motivation.

Limbic system

A group of forebrain structures involved in emotional processing, memory, and basic drives such as hunger, thirst, and aggression

Basal ganglia

An assemblage of neurons at the base of the forebrain involved in regulating postural movements and coordination.


Cerebral cortex

Cerebrum – The large mass of the forebrain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres, responsible for higher mental functions.

Cerebral cortex – The wrinkled surface area of the cerebrum responsible for processing sensory stimuli and controlling higher mental functions, such as thinking and use of language.

Cerebral Cortex

Divided into 4 lobes

Occipital lobe – visual stimuli.

Temporal lobe – sounds or auditory stimuli.

Parietal lobe – sensations of touch, temperature, and pain.

Frontal lobe – Controls muscle movement and includes the prefrontal cortex that regulates higher mental functions such as thinking, problem-solving, and use of language.

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic nervous system – The division of the peripheral nervous system that relays information from the sense organs to the brain and transmits messages from the brain to the skeletal muscles.

Autonomic nervous system – The division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the activities of the glands and involuntary functions.

Peripheral Nervous System --- Automatic --- (2?)

Sympathetic – Pertaining to the division of the autonomic nervous system whose activity leads to heightened states of arousal.

Parasympathetic – Pertaining to the division of the autonomic nervous system whose activity reduces states of arousal and regulates bodily processes that replenish energy reserves.


The field that focuses on how environmental factors influence genetic expression.

Psychodynamic Theorists:


Carl Jung

Karen Horney

Heinz Hartmann

Erik Erikson

Margaret Mahler


A severe form of disturbed behavior characterized by impaired ability to interpret reality and difficulty meeting the demands of daily life.


Changes in the environment (stimuli) that increase the frequency of the preceding behavior.

Positive reinforcers– Added, increase the frequency of the preceding behavior.

Negative reinforcers–Removed, increase the frequency of the preceding behavior.

Punishment–Application of aversive or painful stimuli that reduces the frequency of the behavior it follows.

Social-cognitive theory

A learning-based theory that emphasizes observational learning and incorporates roles for cognitive variables in determining behavior.

Modeling–Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others.

Expectancies–Beliefs about expected outcomes.

Humanistic Models

Self-actualization–In humanistic psychology, the tendency to strive to become all that one is capable of being. The motive that drives one to reach one’s full potential and express one’s unique capabilities.

Unconditional positive regard–Valuing other people as having basic worth regardless of their behavior at a particular time.

Conditional positive regard–Valuing other people on the basis of whether their behavior meets one’s approval.

Cognitive Models

study the cognitions—the thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and attitudes—that accompany and may underlie abnormal behavior.

Cognitive theorists believe that our interpretations of the events in our lives, and not the events themselves, determine our emotional states.

Information-Processing Models

Information-processing theorists discuss human cognition in terms such as:

input (sensory and perceptual processes),

manipulation (interpreting or processing),

storage (placing information in memory),

retrieval (accessing information from memory),

and output (acting on the information).

ABC approach

Albert Ellis (cognitive theorist)

believed that troubling events in themselves do not lead to anxiety, depression, or disturbed behavior.

Ellis used an “ABC approach” to explain the causes of the misery.

Being fired is an activating event (A). The ultimate outcome, or consequence (C), is emotional distress.

But the activating event(A) and the consequences(C) are mediated by various beliefs (B).

Aaron Beck

depression results from errors in thinking or “cognitive distortions"

four basic types of cognitive distortions

1. Selective abstraction-

2. Overgeneralization -

3. Magnification-

4. Absolutist thinking-

Western culture models are based on

medical disease and psychological factors for explaining abnormal behavior