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12 Cards in this Set

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Nonverbal Communication
It includes not only gestures & body language but also how we utter words
Inflection, pauses, tone, volume & accent
These non-verbal features affect the meanings of our words
Nonverbal Communication also includes features of environments that affect interaction
Personal objects (jewelry, clothing, physical appearance & facial expressions)
How Important is NonVerbal Communication?
Scholars estimate that nonverbal behaviors account for 65 – 93% of the total meaning of communication
Similarities Between Verbal & Nonverbal: symbolic, rule-guided
Nonverbal communication is symbolic (represents other things especially moods & feelings, personal space)

Nonverbal communication is rule-guided (shared understandings of what nonverbal behaviors are appropriate in various situations and what they mean – handshake)
We follow rules (often unconsciously) to create different interaction climates
Differences Between Verbal & Nonverbal
-Nonverbal communication tends to be perceived as more believable
More reliable in expressing true feelings
Especially when verbal and nonverbal messages are inconsistent
-Nonverbal communication is multichanneled
Occurs in two or more channels
May be seen, felt, heard, smelled and tasted
Selective perception may operate
Principles of Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication may supplement or replace verbal communication
1. Five ways that nonverbal behaviors interact with verbal communication
Repeat verbal messages (nodding)
Highlight verbal communication (volume)
Complement or add words (physical)
Contradict verbal message (tone of voice)
Substitute nonverbal for verbal behaviors (rolling eyes)
2. Nonverbal communication may regulate interaction
Flow of communication between people
When to talk or remain silent (turn taking)
3. Nonverbal communication often establishes relationship-level meanings
Often acts as “relationship language”
Expressing the overall feeling of relationships
Nonverbal communication can convey three dimensions of relationship-level meaning
-Responsiveness
-Liking
-Power
Responsiveness
Immediacy – behavior that increases percpetions of closeness between communicators (smiling, eye contact, head nodding, etc.)
Synchronicity, or harmony, between people’s postures and facial expressions may reflect how comfortable they are with each other

Liking
NV behaviors are keen indicators of how positively or negative we feel towards others

Power
Use NV behaviors to assert dominance & to negotiate for status & influence (space, volume)
Status (touching , time, space
4. Nonverbal communication reflects and expresses cultural values
NV behavior reflects specific cultures and is learned in the process of socialization
Space, touching, patterns of eye contact, which emotions we express and how we express them, time
Time: Monochronic vs. Polychronic cultures
Types of Nonverbal Communication
-Kinesics
-Haptics
-Artifacts
-Environmental factors
-Proxemics
-Chronemics
-Paralanguage
-
Kinesics – body position & motions
Haptics - touch
Physical appearance
Artifacts – personal objects that reflect our identity and personalize our space
Environmental factors – colors, temperature, sounds, smells, lighting, etc.
Proxemics – (space and how we use it)
Chronemics – (how we perceive & use time)
Paralanguage – (vocal but does not use words: gasps, whispers, volume, etc.)
Silence – has different meanings
Guidelines for Improving Nonverbal Communication
-Monitor your nonverbal communication
-Interpret others’ nonverbal communication tentatively
--Personal qualifications
NV Behaviors are ambiguous & vary among people
Need to be cautious about how we interpret them
Remember to use “I” language

-Contextual qualifications
NV Behavior reflects the settings we inhabit
Turf
Context - Dress
Culture