Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/51

Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

What is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)?

is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix.




CIN is not cancer, and is usually curable.

What is CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III?

Carcinoma in situ?

group of abnormal cells, not necessarily cancerous

koilocytosis?

a squamous epithelial cell that has undergone a number of structural changes, which occur as a result of HPV infection




aka LSIL

what is LSIL

low squamous intraepithelial lesion

what is HSIL

high squamous intraepithelial lesion

what is the transformation zone in the cervix

this zone consists of metaplastic squamous cells, found between the new squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and the original SCJ

what are the risk factors assoc with cervical cancer?

- HPV infections


- cigarette smoking


-immunodeficiency


- no screening

What is HPV?

Human Papilloma Virus

What does HPV do?

- >200 types; 40 types affect genital tract




- infects epithelial cells of the anogenital tract




- also assoc with anal (85%), perianal, vulvlar and penile carcinoma (50%), oropharyngeal cancer (30%)

what are the low risk types of HPV and what are there outcomes?

6 and 11 (+ 42, 44 etc)



-genital warts- rarely progress to malignancy

what are the high risk types of HPV and what are there outcomes?

16 and 18 (+31,45 etc)



-pre-invasive lesions and invasive carcinomas

Natural history HPV infection?

-sexually transmitted, assoc with early sexual activity; multiple sexual partners


- infection is quite common


- mostly clear up within 9-15 months


IF NOT


- CIN/SIL


- persistant infection with high risk HPV is necessary for development and maintenance of CIN III

What if E6?

Protein binds to the protein product of p53 tumour suppressor gene and inactivated it



CELLS W/ MUTATIONS AVOID APOPTOSIS

What does E6 do?

binds and inactivates to p53 tumour suppressor gene



CELLS W/ MUTATIONS AVOID APOPTOSIS

What Does E7 do?

binds and inactivates to Rb tumour suppressor gene



CELLS PROLIFERATE MORE RAPIDLY

what are E6 and E7 genes integrated into in carcinomas?

DNA

What is E6 and E7?

Oncoproteins

What is E6 and E7?

Oncoproteins

What is p53?

Tumour suppressor gene



Transcription factor

What is Rb gene?

Tumour suppressor gene



In cell cycle, Rb can leave temporarily/permanently and complete mitosis

What is E6 and E7?

Oncoproteins

What is p53?

Tumour suppressor gene



Transcription factor

What is Rb gene?

Tumour suppressor gene



In cell cycle, Rb can leave temporarily/permanently and complete mitosis

HPV infects __________ squamous cells in the ________________ zone

Immature



Transformation

HPV infects __________ squamous cells and _______ cells in the ________________ zone

Immature



Basal



Transformation

Histology: Cytology = __________:____________

CIN - cervical intrepid helical neoplasia



SIL - squamous intraepithelial lesion

Diagnostic technique used to look at cervix

colposcopy

Looks likes a microscope

Clinical manifestation of cervical cancer

-vaginal discharge, abnormal bleeding


- painful coitus and post coitus bleeding


-loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue


-pelvic, back or leg pain, urinary/faecal incontinence

What is coitus?

Sexual intercourse

Where can cervical cancer spread?

Local invasion


- peritoneum


- bladder


- ureters- renal failure (most common cause of death)


- rectum


- vagina

Treatment options for cervical cancer?

- wire loop excision ( local anaesthetic)


- cone biopsy (general anaesthetic)


- laser


- diathermy ( removal of cells using heat- general anaesthetic required)

Cervical cancer prognosis?

5 yr survival



Stage 1: 95%


Stage 2: 75%


Stage 3: <50%


Stage 4: death due to local extension of tumour rather than metastatic disease

HPV infects __________ squamous cells and _______ cells in the ________________ zone

Immature



Basal



Transformation

Histology: Cytology = __________:____________

CIN - cervical intrepid helical neoplasia



SIL - squamous intraepithelial lesion

Diagnostic technique used to look at cervix

colposcopy

Looks likes a microscope

Clinical manifestation of cervical cancer

-vaginal discharge, abnormal bleeding


- painful coitus and post coitus bleeding


-loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue


-pelvic, back or leg pain, urinary/faecal incontinence

What is coitus?

Sexual intercourse

Where can cervical cancer spread?

Local invasion


- peritoneum


- bladder


- ureters- renal failure (most common cause of death)


- rectum


- vagina

Treatment options for cervical cancer?

- wire loop excision ( local anaesthetic)


- cone biopsy (general anaesthetic)


- laser


- diathermy ( removal of cells using heat- general anaesthetic required)

Cervical cancer prognosis?

5 yr survival



Stage 1: 95%


Stage 2: 75%


Stage 3: <50%


Stage 4: death due to local extension of tumour rather than metastatic disease

How can you prevent HPV?

Gardasil


- effect in HPV 6,11,16,18


- provides protection against 70% of HPV related cervical carcinoma


-cost effective intervention for general warts and anal cancer for men (9-26yo)

Vaccination: G________l

HPV infects __________ squamous cells and _______ cells in the ________________ zone

Immature



Basal



Transformation

Histology: Cytology = __________:____________

CIN - cervical intrepid helical neoplasia



SIL - squamous intraepithelial lesion

Diagnostic technique used to look at cervix

colposcopy

Looks likes a microscope

Clinical manifestation of cervical cancer

-vaginal discharge, abnormal bleeding


- painful coitus and post coitus bleeding


-loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue


-pelvic, back or leg pain, urinary/faecal incontinence

What is coitus?

Sexual intercourse

Where can cervical cancer spread?

Local invasion


- peritoneum


- bladder


- ureters- renal failure (most common cause of death)


- rectum


- vagina

Treatment options for cervical cancer?

- wire loop excision ( local anaesthetic)


- cone biopsy (general anaesthetic)


- laser


- diathermy ( removal of cells using heat- general anaesthetic required)

Cervical cancer prognosis?

5 yr survival



Stage 1: 95%


Stage 2: 75%


Stage 3: <50%


Stage 4: death due to local extension of tumour rather than metastatic disease

How can you prevent HPV?

Gardasil


- effect in HPV 6,11,16,18


- provides protection against 70% of HPV related cervical carcinoma


-cost effective intervention for general warts and anal cancer for men (9-26yo)

Vaccination: G________l