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17 Cards in this Set

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How much does CBF consume of the body's mass vs. it's energy?

Consumes 2% of body's mass, and 20% of body's energy - it's greedy!

Who wrote the first Psychology book (and was interested in CBF!)?

William James (1890) - Principles of Psychology

What is cognitive neuroscience? Give 4 areas.

Branch that studies biological foundations of mental phenomena.




Generating verbs: Wernicke's area.


Speaking words: Broca's area.


Hearing words: Auditory cortices.


Seeing words: Visual cortices.

What are neuroimaging techniques? Give 3 examples.

Neuroimaging = colourful maps of cerebral activity.




EEG - electroencephalogram.


PET - positron emission tomography.


MRI - magnetic resonance imaging (attempts to measure neural activity! - i.e. neurons firing, action potentials).

Why is MRI good?

No radioactivity!

How is an EEG carried out?

Insert electrodes & collect raw data from each.

Give two problems with EEG.

1. Animal models of higher cognitive abilities (e.g. playing instrument) = hard to find!




2. Can't stick electrodes in human brain (only on scalp) - even if we could we'd only get a small amount of neurons.

What does an EEG do?

Records voltage change in each area of brain.




Average data may point towards inference.




Trial waveform: P1 = 1st positive, N2 = 2nd negative.




May get related to different aspects of cognition - hard to interpret!

What is a positive of EEG?

Good temporal resolution - for fast brain activity.

What are the two negatives of EEG?

Bad spatial resolution - not because of how many electrodes you can get on head - brain waves go all over the place, add up & cancel out!




Difficult to interpret & LOCALISE!

Are there other localised changes occurring in the brain with neural activity that may be easier to detect?

Cerebral bloodflow - but how do we measure this?!

What does PET do?

Measures CBF - detects radioactivity (where & how much).




Why? Measures physiology; simplest form.

How is a PET performed?

Inject radioactive tracers into blood (IV) & see where they end up!




Inject radioactive water - used to measure cerebral bloodflow (CBF).




The water stays in the brain & amount there = proportional to flow of that region.

What does more radioactivity lead to in PET?

More bloodflow!

Who are Raichle et al (1986, 1988) and what did they find?

invented PET and used it to measure CBF!




Activated visual cortex by resenting visual stimulating.




CBF Red = very high and Blue = very low!

Name 3 problems with PET.

1. Poor temporal resolution - takes time for injected radioactive water to reach/grow accustomed to cerebral activity.




2. Poor spatial resolution.




3. Radioactivity = can't retest same subject too much.

What is a positive of PET?

Gives measures in absolute units.