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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Infants under ___ months are obligate nose breathers.

Infants under _6_ months are obligate nose breathers.

Keep nares clear of secretions.

PaO2 : definition, normal range, adjusted range for elderly

PaO2 = The partial pressure of oxygen that is dissolved in arterial blood. 80-100

subtract half of patients age in years from 105 to find adjusted range ie (age 80, 105-40=65)

Upper Airway definition

nose or mouth to external opening of vocal cords

Pharynx definition

posterior nasal cavity to esophagus

Nasopharynx definition(pg183)

between posterior nasal cavity to soft palate; contains the pharyngeal tonsils and Eustachian tubes

Eustachian Tubes definition(pg184)

connection between nasopharynx and middle ears. Opens during swallowing to equalize pressure in the middle ear.

Oropharynx definition(pg184)

between soft palate and base of tongue

Laryngopharynx definition (pg184)

aka Hypopharynx

from base of tongue to the epiglottis

controlled by CN IX(glossopharyngeal) and X(vagus)

Larynx definition (pg184)

upper portion of the trachea; connects the laryngopharynx(base of tongue to the epiglottis) with the trachea

Glottis definition (pg184)

passage through the vocal cords

Lower Airway definition (pg184)

below larynx

Suctioning may stimulate ____ and cause ___ and ___. (pg184)

Suctioning may stimulate the carina(rich in parasympathetic nervous system fibers and cough receptors) and cause bradycardia and hypotension

Pulmonary artery mean pressure is ___. Pulmonary HTN is ___ mm Hg. (pg187)

10-20 mm Hg.

>20 mm Hg

Secondary Pulmonary HTN, passive is caused by back pressure: 2 examples (pg187)

Mitral stenosis

Left ventricular failure

Secondary Pulmonary HTN, active is constriction of the pulmonary circulation 2 examples and 3 meds.

active is also caused by obstruction, 1 example

Constriction : decreased alveolar oxygen concentration and acidosis. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin 2.

Obstruction : Pulmonary Embolus

Pleural cavities maintain an intrapleural pressure of _____ and ____during inspiration. Loss of this pressure results in ____. (pg188)

Pleural cavities maintain an intrapleural pressure of - 5mm Hg and -10mm Hg during inspiration. Loss of this pressure results in pneumothorax. (pg188)

Diaphragm innervated by ____ nerves from ____ vertebrae to ____ vertebrae. (pg188)

Diaphragm innervated by Phrenic nerves from C3 vertebrae to C5 vertebrae. (pg188)

Parietal Pleura

External to the visceral pleura. It lines the inner surface of the chest wall.

The parietal pleura is attached to the wall of the thoracic cavity and innervated by the intercostal nerves and phrenic nerve.

Visceral Pleura

The visceral pleura is attached directly to the lungs, whilst the parietal pleura is attached to the opposing thoracic cavity. The space between these two delicate membranes is known as the pleural cavity or intrapleural space.

Accessory muscles of inspiration: (2) what fx does each have?

1)Scalene - from 1st cervical vertebrae to the 1st and 2nd ribs. Fx - enlarge upper rib cage

2)Sternocleidomastoid - mastoid process and occipital bone to manubrium and medial clavicle. Fx - elevates sternum to increase AP and transverse diameter of the chest.

Chemoreceptors in the ____ are sensitive to changing ___ of CSF.



Increase of PaCO2 causes __ in the rate and depth of ventilation.

Decrease of PaCO2 causes ___ in the rate and depth of ventilation.

(increase of PaCO2 = acidosis)

Increase causes an increase.

Decrease causes a decrease.

Arterial chemoreceptors in aortic arech and carotid bodies are sensitive to changes in ____ and _____

pH and Pao2.

They respond when Pao2 falls below ~60. Important in patients with chronically elevated levels of PaCO2.

PaCO2 >45 indicates (pg190)


PaCO2 <35 indicates (pg190)


Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction definition (pg190)

protective mechanism which decreases blood flow to an area of poor ventilation so that blood can be shunted to areas of better ventilation.

Normal V/Q ratio

Deadspace V/Q ratio and examples

Shunt V/Q ratio and examples

alveolar minute ventilation = ~4L

Normal cardiac output = ~5L

So... normal V/Q = 0.8

Deadspace V greater than Q, >0.8.

ex - pulmonary embolism, shock, excessive tidal volume.

Shunt Q greater than V, <0.8

ex - atelectasis, ARDS, pneumonia

Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shows ___. Shift left does ___

Shift right does ___

Shows the relationship between PaO2 and Hgb saturation.

Shift left increases affinity between O2 and Hgb, increases pickup of O2 but impairs dropoff at cellular level.

Shift right decreases affinity between O2 and Hgb, impairs pickup of O2 but optimizes dropoff.