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52 Cards in this Set

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What is Metabolism (aka cellular respiration) and how many steps does it involve?
Metabolism is the breakdown of food for energy (ATP) and it involves 4 steps.
What is a catalyst (def.)? And how does it work?
A catalyst is an enzyme(in microorganisms) that speeds up a chemical reaction and remains unchanged in the process. It works by reducing the amount of energy required for the reaction. Like a booster for the reaction.
How many enzymes catalyze how many reactions? What is a substrate?
One enzyme catalyzes only one kind of reaction.
A substrate is the substance an enzyme reacts upon.
What are enzymes composed of?
All enzymes are composed of proteins.
What is a denatured Enzyme?
A denatured enzyme is one that is altered or damaged.
How does an enzyme work with the substrate to speed up a reaction?
Enzymes work by lock-and-key mechanisms. Each enzyme has an active site (lock) and it's substrate has a particular configuration (key) that fits into the enzymes active site which 'unlocks' the enzyme to speed up (catalyze) the reaction.
What common spelling suffix do enzymes have?
The rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions depends on 4 things, what are those 4 things?
1-the concentration of the substrate
2-the concentration of the enzyme
3-the temperature of the environment (~37 degreesC max)
4-the acidity of the environment (~7.5 PH Max)
What is the definition of Catabolism?
What is ATP's role?
What are 3 examples?
Catabolism is the breakdown or digestion of large complex (macro) molecules.
Energy released during Catabolist reactions is in the form of ATP.
EX: Hydrolysis, digestion, fermentation
What is the definition of Anabolism?
What is ATP's role?
What are 3 examples?
Anabolism is the synthesis or creation generally by joining together smaller micro molecules.
Energy trapped during the an Anabolist reaction is trapped in ATP.
Ex:synthesis of macromolecules, protein synthesis, photosynthesis
What is the currency of energy in the microbial cell?
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
What are the three parts of ATP?
1 double ring of carbon and nitrogen called adenine
1 five carbon carbohydrate called ribose
3 phosphate groups
How are the 3 phosphate groups linked?
The three phosphate groups in ATP are linked by high energy covalent bonds.
What happens when ATP is catabolized by an enzyme and how much energy is made available?
The third phosphate group is released and 7.3 kilocalories of energy are made available to do the work on the microorganism.
What are the products when ATP is broken down?
ADP and a phosphate ion.
What is a coenzyme and how does it relate to a cofactor?
A coenzyme is an organic cofactor (a chemical substance which assists enzymes to catalyze a reaction.)
Name 3 important coenzymes:
NAD- Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
NADP- Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
FAD- Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
How is energy generated during the chemical reaction of metabolism?
during the chemical reaction of metabolism, coenzymes accept electrons then pass them on to other coenzymes or other molecules. The passing of electrons generates energy.
What is the removal of electrons from a coenzyme called?
Loss of Electrons:
What is the addition of electrons to a coenzyme called?
Gain of Electrons:
The reactions performed by coenzymes are called what?
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
What molecules other than coenzymes also pass electrons to create energy?
What is the system of reactions, in which coenzymes and cytochromes participate in passing of electrons to create energy, called?
The Electron Transport System
As high energy electrons (ADP and Phosphate ion) move through the ________ ________ _______, they are passed between _______ and ________,
Electron Transport System
Cytochromes and Coenzymes
What happens to Cytochromes and Coenzymes energy as they move through the Electron Transport System?
What is the energy turned into?
Cytochomes and Coenzymes Energy is drained as they are moved along the Electron Transport System.
Energy is formed into ATP.
ATP formation from the Electron Transport system occurs where in Prokaryotes and where in Eukaryotes?
In Prokaryotes it occurs in the cell membranes.
In Eukaryotes it occurs in the mitochondria.
For every molecule of Gluclose, How many molecules of ATP are generated in Prokayotes and Eukayotes? Is there a difference in the amount generated and why?
Prokayotes generate 38 ATP molecules from every one molecule of ATP.
Eukaryotes generate 36 ATP molecules from every one molecule of gluclose.
Yes, mitochondria charge a fee of 2 ATP.
What is the formula for Cellular Respiration?
C6H1206 (glucose) + 6 O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36/38 ATPs
What are the microorganisms called that can trap energy they need for metabolism through direct light(photosynthesis)?
What are the microorganisms called that must rely on pre-formed carbohydrates found in their environment to obtain energy needed for metabolism?
What kind of process is cellular respiration?
(Aerobic or anaerobic)
Cellular respiration is an aerobic process because the last step involves Oxygen Gas as the final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport system.
What type of Cellular respiration does Heterotrophs perform and what type does Autotrophs perform?
Heterotrophs perfom aerobic cellular respiration and Autotrophs perform anaerobic respiration.
Name the 4 steps of cellular respiration in order.
2-Intermediate Step
3-Krebs Cycle
4-The Electron Transport System
During Glycolysis, glucose molecule is broken down to form what?
2 pyruvic acids and 8 ATP
Glycolysis is an aerobic or anaerobic process?
Why is glycolysis considered to be a somewhat inefficient process?
Because much energy is left in the pyruvic acids which is why the process of cellular respiration must continue for most aerobic organisms to yield more energy.
What is involved in the intermediate step in cellular respiration?
The intermediate step in cellular respiration takes 2 pyruvic acids which are broken down to yield 2 acetyl-coA's and 6 ATP.(2 High energy molecules of NADH(yielding 3 ATP each)are also formed.)2x3=6ATP
What is involved during Krebb's cycle?
2 Acetyl-CoA's are wormed throuh to yield 12 ATP each for a total of 24 ATP.
How is the energy yeild broken down in Krebb's cycle?
per acetyl-CoA
How many ATP are NADH, FADH2 and GTP worth?
Electrons are transported along a series of coenzymes and cytochromes and the energy in the electrons is released.
The Electron Transport System
What is the final electron acceptor in the Electron Transport system and what is formed?
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and water is formed.
How does Oxygen work in the Electron Transport System?
Oxygen is responsible for removing electrons from the system; without oxygen, electrons could not be released and ATP could not be produced.
What does the reaction look like in the final step of the Electron Transport System?
2H + ½ O2 = H2O
Summarize the steps and how you get 38/36 ATP in Cellular Respiration?
1. Glycolysis= Gluclose to 2 pyruvic Acid= 6 ATP
2. Intermediate Step=Pyruvic acid to 2 Acetyl-CoA= 8 ATP
3. Krebbs Cylcle= 2 Acetyl-CoA to
3 NADH x 3 ATP= 9 ATP
1 FADH2 x 2 ATP= 2 ATP
1 GTP x 1 ATP= 1 ATP
=12 x 2= 24 + 8 + 6=38ATP
What kind of process is fermentation and where does it occur?
How many ATP does it yield?
What is it also known as?
fermentation is an anaerobic process which occurs in yeast cells(to produce alcohol) or muscle or bacteria cells.
It yields 2 ATP.
A.K.A. Anaerobic Glycolysis
What is photosynthesis?
A light-dependent reaction requiring chlorophyll.
What is Hill's reaction?
A light dependent reaction: Chlorophyll absorbs light photons and excites molecules which release energy to split water molecules.
What is Calvin Cycle?
The Dark reaction: (carbon fixing reaction)The energy from the light reaction drives a series of reactions which ultimately yields glucose from CO2.
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O = C6H1206 (glucose) + 6 O2 ↑ (gas)
In the carbon fixing stage, where is CO2 obtained?
From the atmosphere.
How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration differ?
They are opposites in that Cellular respiration starts with glucose and oxygen and ends with carbon dioxide and water, and Photosynthesis starts with water and carbon dioxide and ends in oxygen and glucose.