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20 Cards in this Set

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Apoptosis

Programmed cell death which doesn't harm neighbouring cells

Cell suicide

Cellular necrosis

Improper or unexpected cell death which is harmful in most cases

Harmful

Point mutations

One base pairs replacing another so only 1 pair changes

One

Insertions

Introducing extra base pair which causes a frameshift

Extra

Deletions

Removing a base pair that causes a frameshift

Remove

Frameshift

Alteration to the entire DNA sequence so all of the triplet codes move

Move

Silent mutations

No effect on actual coding

None

Neutral mutations

Neither a negative or positive effects to the organism despite a coding change

Neither

Lactose permease enzyme

To transport lactose into bacterial cell

B-galactosidase enzyme

To break down lactose into galactose and glucose

Break down

Lac Operon

Structural genes: Z and Y sites, and control sites: regulator gene, promoter region and operator region

DNA operon

Meiosis

Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II

I Poo Myself Any Time

Prophase 1

Nuclear envelope breaks down

Metaphase 1

Spindle fibres attach to chiasmata

Anaphase 1

Homologous chromosomes pulled to opposite poles

Telophase 1

Cell divided by cytokinesis and nuclear envelope forms

Telophase 2

Results in haploid cells

Homozygous

Same alleles for a phenotype

P + q = 1

Frequency of alleles

P^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

Frequency of genotypes


P^2 = homozygous dominant


2pq = heterozygous dominant


Q^2 = homozygous recessive