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19 Cards in this Set

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Cell Theory
- All living organisms are made up of cells
- All cells arise from pre-existing cells
- Cells are the smallest living organisational unit
- All cells are similar but not identical
Prokaryotic cells
- Kingdoms: Archaea & Monera
- Extremely small,
- Simple internal structure and
- No membrance bound organelles (including nucleus)
Eukaryotic cells
- Kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Prostista & Fungi
- Single celled & all multicellular organisms,
- Complex internal structure
- Many membrane bound organelles
Cell Membrane
Description: Composed of lipid molecules (also called the phospholipid bilayer)

Function: Encloses all cell contents, regulates the movement of materil into and out of the cell. Communication with neighbouring cells.

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokaryotic Cells: YES
Nucleus
Description: Surrounded by doulbe membrane. Very large, contains chromosomes and nucleolus.

Function: Contains most of the genetice material in a cell and is where DNA is replicated

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokaryotic Cells: NO
Nucleolus
Descripton: Made of protein & nucleic acid

Function: Site of manufacture of ribosomal RNA

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokaryotic Cells: NO
Nuclear Membrane
Description: A double membrane, containing many pores

Function: Regulates the movement of material between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

Animal: YES
Plant:YES
Prokayotic Cells: NO
Mitochondria
Description: Sacs made up of two membranes

Function: Site of aerobic respiration, they are responsible for most of the cells energy production

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokaryotic Cells: NO
Ribosomes
Description: composed of RNA and protein

Function: Site of protein synthesis

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokaryotic Cells: YES
Golgi Apparatus
Description: Stacks of flattened membrane sacs

Function: Packages proteins into vesicles for secretion from the cell or to be sent to other organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Description: Thin membrane sheets dividing to cytoplasm into compartmets & channels. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes

Function (Rough): Ribosomes produce the protein and allows substances to move around the cell. If there is too much the ER can pinch off into vesicles.

Function (Smooth): Transport proteins, synthesis lipids, and to assist in the manufacture of plasma membrane.

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokayotic Cells: NO
Lysosomes
Description: A membrane sac containing many digestive enzymes

Function: They contain enzymes that digest worn out organelles, viruses or bacteria. it is like the cells immune system

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokaryotic Cells: NO
Vacuole
Description: A membrane bound sac containing fluid, sugar and ions

Function: Stores sugars, minerals, proteins and water

Animal: YES
Plant: YES
Prokayotic Cells: NO
Chloroplasts
Description: Contains stacks of membrane embedded in less dense membrane fluid. (Also contains chlorophyll)

Function: Site of photosynthesis

Animal: NO
Plant: YES (not all but it is common)
Prokaryotic Cells: NO
Flagella or Cilia
Description: Modes of transport for single celled organisms

Function: Provide the means of movement of the cell or of the fluid surrounding it

Animal: YES (some)
Plant: YES (some)
Prokaryotic Cells: YES (some)
Cell Wall
Description: A layer of cellulose (in plants). Completely surrounds the cell membrane

Function: Provides structural support and defines the shape of cells
Cellular Respiration
Description: Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that involve a reaction between glucose and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat energy:

Glucsoe + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat Energy
ATP
Description: ATP is an energy storage molecule that is used by the cell to power cellular processes.
Photosynthesis
Description: The chemical reaction using energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen:

Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen

NOTE: The transition from carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen canot occur without the presence of the sun and cholophyll.

Also note that photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast