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20 Cards in this Set

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What is the resolution and magnification of a light microscope?

200nm and x1,500

What is the resolution and magnification of a transmission electron microscope?

0.1nm and x500,000

What is the resolution and magnification of a scanning electron microscope?

0.1nm and x100,000

Define the magnification

The degree to which the size of an image is larger than itself

Define the resolution

The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are very close together

How do you calculate the linear magnification of an image?

Image size = actual size x magnification (I/AM)

What is the structure and function of the nucleus?

a) largest organelle surrounded by double membrane


b) houses all of the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA which contains the instructions for protein synthesis

What is the structure and function of the nucleolus?

a) dense, spherical structure inside the nucleus


b) makes ribosomes and RNA which pass into the cytoplasm and are used in protein synthesis

What is the structure and function of the nuclear envelope?

a) surrounds the nucleus


b) double membrane with nuclear pores allows for only certain substances to pass into and out of the nucleus

What is the structure and function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

a) continuous with the nuclear envelope, studded with ribosomes unlike the smooth endoplasmic reticulum


b) transports proteins made by the attached ribosomes in vesicles

What is the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

a) straight continuous membrane, long network of folded tube-like structure


b) involved in the making and storage of carbohydrates and lipids

What is the structure and function of the golgi apparatus?

a) curved stack of membrane-bound flattened sacs, compact and formed of cisternae


b) modifies proteins received from the RER then packages into vesicles to be transported


- adding sugar molecules


- adding lipid molecules


- folding proteins into their 3D shapes

What is the structure and function of the ribosomes?

a) tiny, some bound to the RER


b) site of protein synthesis

What is the structure and function of the mitochondria?

a) spherical or sausage shaped with a double membrane


- inner forms highly folded cristae which contain enzymes used in aerobic respiration


b) where ATP is made

What is the structure and function of the lysosomes?

a) spherical sacs with a single membrane


b) contain digestive enzymes used to break down material

What is the structure and function of the chloroplasts?

a) only present in plant cells, two membranes, contain thylakoids


b) site of photosynthesis in plant cells

What is the structure and function of the plasma membrane?

a) phospholipid bilayer


b) controls the entry and exit of substances into and out of the cell

What is the structure and function of the centrioles?

a) small tubes of protein fibres, pair of them next to the nucleus in animal cells, composed of microtubules


b) form the spindle which moves chromosomes during cell division

What is the structure and function of the flagella and cilia?

a) hair like or whip like extensions projecting from the surface of the cell, cilia have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules


b) move by ATP e.g. wave mucus along trachea or help sperm swim, sometimes used as sensory organelle

What is the structure and function of the vesicles?

a) membranous sacs, single membrane with fluid inside


b) used to store and transport materials inside the cell