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34 Cards in this Set

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Meristem

greek for division. Active from seed germimation, source of primary plant growth, generate cells giving rise to roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of adult

Growth

Apical meristem

Located at the tips of all roots and stems

Growth

Intials

Cells that perpetuate the meristem; divide such that a sister cell remains in the meristem

Growth

Deriviatives

Cell of initial that becomes a new cell body

Growth

Primary growth

Extension of the plant body, formation of primary tissues; forms the primary plant body. Roots towards water, shoots toward light. Growth of apical meristems all life span

Growth

Development

Sum total of events that progressively form an organism's body; from genetic instructions and environmental cues

Development

Growth

Irreversible increase in size, cell division and cell enlargement

Increase

Morphogenesis

The shape or form the plant assumes, cell and tissue enlargement

Growth

Differentiation

The process by which cells with identical genetic potentials become different from one another and from the cells from which they originated. Begins while cell is enlarging

Growth

Tissue systems

3 basic ones: ground tissue, vascular tissue, dermal tissue

Tissues

Ground tissue [simple, composed of 1 cell type]

Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

3

Vascular tissue [composed of 2 or more cell types, complex]

Xylem, phloem

2

Dermal tissue [complex tissue]

Epidermis, periderm

2

Tissue distribution

Characteristic patterns based on the plant part and plant taxon or both, patterns are similar from one plant part to another. Differences between species shows in patterns of the distribution of vascular and ground tissues

Differences

Parenchyma

Located in cortex, pith of stems and roots, leaf mesophyll, flesh of fruits. Also appear as horizontal strands as rays in secondary vascular tissues. Vertical strands of cells in primary and secondary vascular tissues (primary and secondary xylem and phloem)

Stem

Parenchymal cells

Capable of dividing. Located in cell walls of most primary tissue (some secondary tissues). Parenchymal cells with primary walls are: active in regeneration and wound healing, initiate adventitous roots on stem cuttings. Also capable of photosynthesis, storage, secretion (all dependant in living protoplasts)

Hurt

Collenchyma

Discrete strands or cylinders beneath epidermis of stems and petioles. Borders of veins in dicots. Form elongated, unevenly thickened, non-lignified primary cell walls. Soft and pliable. Living at maturity. Support young, growing organs (plant organs: roots, stem, leaves, reproductive structures)

Support/growth

Sclereids

Short, branched cells. Occur singly or in aggregates in ground tissue. Seed coats, nut shells, stone (endocarp) of stone fruits. Gritty texture in pears are sclereids

Ground

Vascular tissue [xylem]

Derived from vascular cambium in secondary growth, dead at maturity.

Tissue

Tracheary elements

Principle conducting cells of xylem

Vascular

Vessel elements

Absent from gymnosperms. Vessel-like cells evolved independently in seedless vascular plants

Vascular

Tracheids

Lacks perforations, less specialized type of cell than vessel elements (only water conducting cell in most seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms)

Vascular

Vessel elements 2

Perforations (areas w/o primary or secondary) walls. Perforation plate. Occur on end walls with vessel elements joined end-to-end -long continuous tubes (vessels)

Holes

Tracheid 2

Safer for water transport because water flowing from tracheid to tracheid passes through pit membranes (thin, modified primary walls of pit pairs). Pit in a cell wall adjoins a pit in the wall of adjoining cell (two opposite pits plus membrane). Pit membranes can block tiny air bubbles. Air embolisms in angiosperms can block the whole vessel element, enlarge and travel up the xylem

Water transport

Phloem

Transport sugars, amino acids, lipids, micronutrients, hormones, floral stimulus, proteins, RNAs. "Super-information highway" of the plant

Transport

Sieve elements

Principle conducting cells; protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements; interconnected; 2 types. "Sieve-elements"-seedless vascular plants, variable in structure

Cells

Sieve cells

The only food conducting cells of gymnosperms

Food

Sieve-tube elements

Only in angiosperms. Sieve tubes- end on end. With sieve plates.

Plates

Companion cells

Specialized parenchyma cells. Develop from the same mother cell as sieve tube elements. Nucleated with organelles. Deliever substances to sieve tube elements. Informational molecules, protien ATP. "Life support system" for sieve tube elements.

Parenchyma

Albuminous/Strasburger cells of gymnosperms

Not derived from the same mother cell as sieve cells. Nucleated with organelles. Role similar to companion cells of angiosperms.

Cell

Epidermis

Dermal tissue of leaves, floral parts, fruits and seeds (young stems and roots).

Tissue

Guard cells

Regulate opening and closing of stomata

Open

Trichomes

Reflect solar radiation, lower leaf temperature, lower water loss. (Microenvironment), absorption of water and minerals in epiphytes (velamin-epiphytic orchids), defense against insects

Protection

Periderm

Replaces epidermis in stems and roots of plants that exhibit secondary growth. Cork cambium forms cork on outer surface. Phelloderm forms cork on inner surface

Cork