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78 Cards in this Set

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nitrogen-containing aromatic base, chemically designed at a purine, pairs with either thymine or uracil
Adenosine diphosphate
adenosine with two phosphates linked to each other with a phosphoanhydride bond and to the 5' carbon of ribose by a phosphoester bond
Adenosine triphosphate
adenosine with three phosphates linked to each other by phosphoanhydride bonds and to the 5' carbon of hte ribose by a phosphoester bond
Adenosine monophosphate
adenosine with a phospate linked ot the 5' carbon of robse by a phosphoester bond
Alpha helix
spiral-shaped secondary structure of protein molecules, consisting of a backbone of peptide bonds wtih R groups of amino acids jutting out
Amino acids
monomeric units of proteins, consisting of a carboxylic acid with an amino group and one variety of R groups attached to the alpha carbon, 20 different kinds of amino acids are normally found in proteins
branched-chain form of starch
straight chain form of starch
base pairing
complementary relationship between purines and pyrimidines based on hydrogen bonding that provides a mechanism for nucleic acids to recognize and bind to each other
Beta sheet
extended sheetlike secondary structure of proteins in which adjacent polypeptides are linked by h-bonds between amino acids and carbonyl groups
the end of a polypeptide chain that contains the last amino acid to be incorporated during mRNA translation
general name given to molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
structural polysaccharide present in cell walls
structural polysaccharide found in insect exoskeletons and crustacean cells
lipid constituent of animal cell plama membrane, serves as a precursor to the steroid hormones
3D shape of a polypeptide or other biological macromolecules
nitrogen-containing aromatic base chemically designed as a pyramidine, that serves as an informational monomeric unit when present in nucleic acids with other bases in a specific sequence
five carbon sugar present in DNA
carbohydrate consisting of two covalently linked monosaccharide units
Disulfide bonds
covalent bond formed between two sulfur atoms upon oxidation of two cytosines-stablized tertiary structure of proteins
marcomolecule that serves as a repository of genetic info in cells, contains nucleotides of deoyxribose phosphate linked to bases, forms a double helix held together by complementary base pairing
a discrete, locally folded unit of protein teritiary structure
double helix
two intertwined helical chains of a DNA molecule
Fatty acids
long, unbranched chains that has a carboxyl group and one end and is therefore amphipathic
Fibrous proteins
proteins with extensive alpha helix or beta sheet structure that confers a highly ordered, repetitive structure
fischer projection
model depicting the chemical structure of a molecule as a chain drawn vertically with the most oxidized atom on top and horizontal projects that are understood to be coming out of hte plane of the paper
Globular proteins
protein whose polypeptide chains fold in compact structure rather than extended filaments
three carbon alcohol with a hydroxy group at each carbon, serves are the backbone for tricylglycerols
highly branched storage polysaccharide in animal cells
lipid molecules containing a bound carbohydrate group
purine, forms complementary pair with cytosine
Glycosidic bond
bond linking a sugar to another molecule, which may be a sugar
Haworth projection
model that depicts the chemical structure of a molecule is a way that suggests the spatial relationship of different parts of the molecule
Hydrogen bonds
weak attractive interaction between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen covalently bonded to another electronegative atom
Hydrophobic interactions
tendency of hydrophobic groups to be excluded from interactions with water molecules
Ionic bonds
attractive force between a positively charged chemical group and a negatively charged one
any of a large and diverse chemical class of organic compounds that are poorly soluble or insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
Monomeric proteins
protein that consists of a single polypeptide chains
simple sugar,the repeating unit of polysacchrides
region of protein secondary structure consisting of small segments of alpha helix and/or beta sheets connected by looped regions of varying length
Multimeric proteins
protein that consists of two or more polypeptide chains
Multiprotein complex
two or more protein (usually enzymes) bound together in a certain way that allows each to play a sequential role in the same multistep process
the end of a polypeptide chain that contains the first amino acid to be incorporated during mRNA translation, usually has a free amino group
Native conformation
3D folding of a protein that represents its most stable conformation
molecule consists of a nitrogen containing base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) that is attached to a phosphate group, aka nucleoside monophosphate
Noncovalent bonds and interactions
binding forces that DO NOT involve the sharing of electrons
Nucleic acids
linear polymer of nucleotides joined together in a genetically determined order
nucleotide without the phosphate, only the nitrogen containing based and the sugar
Nucleoside monophosphate
another name for a nucleotide
Phosphatidic acid
basic component of phosphoglycerides, consists of two fatty acids and phosphate group linked by ester bonds to glycerol, they are key intermediates in the synthesis of other phosphoglycerides
predominant phospholipid molecule of cell membranes, consisting of a glycerol molecule esterified to two fatty acids and a phosphate group
lipid possessing a covalently attached phosphate group and therefore exhibiting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
linear chain of nucleotides linked by phosphoester bonds
linear chain of amino acids liked by peptide bonds
polymer consisting of sugars and sugar derivatives linked by glycosidic bonds
Primary structure
sequence of amino acids in a peptide chain
macromole consists of amino acids folded into a structure dictated by the sequence of amino acids
two-ringed nitrogen containing molecule, parent compound of the bases adenine and guanine
single ringed nitrogen-containing molecule, parent compound of bases thymine, uracil, cytosine
3', 5' phophodiester bond
covalent linkage in which two parts of a molecule are joined through oxygen atoms to the same phosphate group
Quaternary structure
level of protein structure involving two or more polypeptide chains interacting to form a multimeric protein
five carbon sugar present in RNA and in important nucleoside triphosphates such as ATP and GTP
nucleic acid that plays several different roles in genetic expression: constructed from nucleotides consisting of ribose phosphate linked to bases
Saturated fatty acids
fatty acids without double or triple bonds
Secondary structure
level of protein structure involving h-bonding of atoms in the peptide bonds along the peptide backbone that allows the molecule to form alpha helices or beta sheets
class of lipids containing the amine alcohol sphinosine as a backbone
amine alcohol that serves as the backbone for sphingolipids, contains an amino group that can form an amide bond with a long-chain fatty acid, also contains a hydroxy group that can attach to a phosphate group
storage polysaccharide in plants
Steroid hormones
any of several steroids derived from cholesterol that function as signaling molecules, moving via the circulatory system to target tissues
any number of lipid molecules that are derived from a four-membered ring compound called phenanthrene.
a nucleic acid whose base sequence serves as a complementary pattern for the synthesis of another nucleic acid
lipid constructed from the five-carbon compound isoprene and its derivatives, joined together in various combinations
Tertiary structure
level of protein structure involving interactions between amino acid side chains of the polypeptide, regardless of where along the primary sequence they are located, results in the 3D folding of the polypeptide
pyrimidine that schools are an informational monomeric unit when present in DNA in a specific sequence, pairs with adenosine by h-bonding
a glycerol molecule with three fatty acids linked to it, also called a triglyceride
Unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids with double or triple bonds
pyrimidine nucleotide that codes information when in a RNA sequence with other bases, pairs with adenosine through h bonding
Van der waals interactions
interactions between two atoms caused by transient asymmeties in the distribution of charge in each atom