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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What layer do routers work at?
Layer 3
Network Layer
How many layers are there in the OSI?
What are possible causes of LAN traffic congestion?
- Too many hosts in a Broadcast domain
- broadcast storms
-low bandwidth
-large # of ARP and IPX traffic
What are two advantages of using routers on your network?`
1. They don't forward broadcasts by default
2. They filter the network based on layer 3 (Network Layer) information (i.e. IP addresses)
by default, what do switches break up
Collision Domains
what do routers break up
Boradcast domains
What are some advantages of using the OSI layer?
- allows various types of network hardware and software to communicate.
- industry standardization
- aids in component development
Which layer chooses and determines the availabilty of communicatiing partners, along with the resources necessary to make the connection; cordinates partnering applications and forms a consensus on procedures for controlling data integrity and error recovery?
Application Layer (layer 7)
Which layer is responsible for converting Data packets from the Data link Layer into electrical signals?
Physical Layer (layer 1)
At what layer is routing implemented, enabling connections and path selections between two end systems?
Network Layer (layer 3)
Which layer defines how data is formatted, presented, encoded, and converted for use on the network?
Presentation Layer (layer 6)
Which layer is responsible for creating, managing, and terminating sessions between applications?
Session Layer (layer 5)
Which layer ensures the trustworthy transmission of data across a physical link and is primarily concerned with physical addressing, line discipline, network topology, error notification, orderes delivery of frames, and flow control?
Data Link Layer (layer 2)
What layer is used for reliable communications between end nodes over the netowrk and provides mechanisms for establishing, maintaining, and terminating virtuial circuits, transport-fault detection and recovery and acontrolling the flow of information?
Transport Layer (layer 4)
What layer is represented by frames?
Data Link (layer 2)
What layer is represented by segments?
Transport Layer (layer 4)
What layer is represented by packets?
Network Layer (layer 3)
What layer is represented by bits?
Physical Layer (layer 1)
What layer segments and reassembles data into a data stream?
Transport Layer (layer 4)
Which layer provides the physical transmission of the data and handles error notification, network topology and flow control?
Data Link (layer 2)
What layer manages device addressing, tracks the location of devices on the network and determines the best way to move data?
Network Layer (layer 3)
What is the length and expression from a MAC address?
Hexadecimal and 48 bits (6 bytes)
What layer will you find Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC)?
Data Link (layer 2)
What is crosstalk?
Crosstalk is the unwanted signal interference from adjacent pairs in the cable.
10Base2 has what speed and what length can it be?
10Mbps, up to 185 meters in length
10Base5 has what speed and what length can it be?
10 Mbps, up to 500 meters in length
What type of devices can you use Straight-Through Cables for?
Host to switch or hub
router to switch or hub
What type of devices can you use Crossover Cables?
switch to switch
hub to hub
host to host
hub to switch
router direct to host
What type of devices can you use Rolled Cables?
a host to a router console serial communication (com) port.
What are the 4 different Protocol Data Units (PDU's) and what layer do you find them at?
Segment = Transport Layer
Packet = Network Layer
Frame = Data link Layer
Bits = Physical Layer
How many layers are there in the DoD version of the OSI Model?
What are the layers of the DoD version of the OSI Model?
- Process/Application Layer
- Host to Host Layer
- Internet Layer
- Network Access Layer
The Process/Application Layer consists of what layers of the OSI Model?
Application Layer (layer 7)
Presentaion Layer (layer 6)
Session Layer (layer 5)
The Host to Host Layer consists of what layers of the OSI Model?
Transport Layer (layer 4)
The Internet Layer consists of what layers of the OSI Model?
Network Layer (layer 3)
The Network access Layer consists of what layers of the OSI Model?
Data Link Layer (layer 2)
Physical Layer (layer 1)
What does ARP do?
resolves ip to MAC address
What does RARP do?
Resolves Mac Address to IP
What is the range for a Class A IP address?
00000000 - 01111111
0 - 127
What is the range for a Class B IP address?
10000000 - 10111111
128 - 191
What is the range for a Class C IP address?
11000000 - 11011111
192 - 223
What IP would you use to send a test packet to itself witout generating network traffic?
What are the reserved IP address spaces?
A- -
B- -
C- -
Where does CISCO load its IOS from?
What is the first thing that the router does when you turn it on?
Power-on self test (POST)
Where is the startup-configuration located?
What do you type to abort the setup of the router?
Ctrl C
If you need help what character do you use?
How can you tell if something is a default setting?
It will be in square brackets []
What command will provide you with the basic configuration for the system hardware as well as the software version, the names and sources of configuration files, and the boot images?
sh version (sh ver)
What is the most common banner that you can place on your router and what is the command to set it?
The Message of the Day Banner (motd)
banner motd #message#
How many password are there to secure your Cisco Router?
Whate are the different passwords that you can set on your Cisco Router?
1. Console
2. Auxiliary
3. Telnet (vty)
4. Enable Password (en)
5. Enable Secret Password
What command would you use to find out if your Router is the DCE?
sh controllers (interface - i.e s0/0)
What command would you use to set the clock rate?
clock rate (#) ie 64000
What command would you use to show layer 3 interface info?
sh ip interface
What command provides a quick overview of the routers interfaces including the logical address and status?
sh ip int brief
What protocols are assigned to an interface and determine the method of packet delivery using IP and IPX?
Routed Protocols
What protocols are used for taking a packet from one device and sending it through the network to another device on a different network?
Routing Protocol
What are the three different types of routing?
- Static
- Default
- Dynamic
What is a command that you can use to see static routes?
sh ip route
What is Administrative Distance used for?
It is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information recieved on a router from a neighbor router.
What is the Administrative Distance for EIGRP?
What is the Administrative Distance for IGRP?
What is the Administrative Distance for OSPF?
What is the Administrative Distance for RIP?
What is the Administrative Distance for a connected interface?
What is the Administrative Distance for a Static route?
What is the Administrative Distance for External EIGRP?
True/False - You must use a classful network number when configuring IGRP?
What is the enhanced distance-vector protocol that gives us a real edge over other Cisco proprietary protocol IGRP?
Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)
What protocol uses wild card masks?
What OSI Modle Layer do Switches work at?
Layer 2 - Data Link Layer
What are the different Spanning tree port states?
What are the 3 different LAN Switch types?
- Cut-through (fastforward)

- Fragment Free (modified cut-through)

- Store and forward
What are some different connection types a WAN can use?
- Dedicated
- Circuit-Switched
- Packet-Switched
What layer does PPP work at?
Layer 2
Data Link Layer
What are the two methods of authentication that can be used with PPP?
What one is more secure PAP or CHAP?
How many types of Frame Relay encapsulations are there?
Cisco and ietf
What kind of Circuts does Frame Relay use?
Virtual circuts, as opposed to real circuts that leased lines use.
What are the 3 Frame Relay Congestion Bits called?
- Discard Eligibility (DE)
- Forward Explicit congestion Notification (FECN)
-Backward Explicit congestion Notification (BECN)
What is our ISDN Reference Point?
When is Dial on Demand Routing (DDR) used?
Only used for low-volume, periodic network connection using a Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) or IDSN connection.
What is the command that you type to set a static route?
ip route [destination_network] [mask] [next-hop_address or interface] [adminitrative_distance] [permanent]
ip route
What can you tell me about this static route?
-The ip route command tells us simply that it is a static route
- is the remote network we want to send packets to.
- is the mask of the remote network.
- is the next hop or router we will send packets to.
What command do you use to set the Enable Secret Password to Cisco?
config t
enable secret Cisco
What is a network technology that is based on the transmission of data in packets that devides a continuous stream of data into small units-packets-enables data from multiple devices on a network to share the same communication channel simultaneously but also requires the use of precise routing information?
Packet Switching
Define what a CO is.
Central Office: The local telephone company ofice where all loops in a certain area connect and where circuit switching of suscriber lines occurs.
What command sets the type of ISDN switch that the router will communicate with; can be sat at interface level or global configuration mode?
isdn switch-type
What command will show if your SPID's are valid and if you are connected and communicating with the providers switch?
sh isdn status
What command will connect, view, and run programs on a remote device?
What command sends console messages displaying information about RIP packets being sent and received on a router interface?
debug ip rip
What command shows message requests from neighbor routers asking for an update and the broadcasts sent from your router to that neighbor router?
debug ip igrp transactions
What command provides a summary of the IGRP routing information running on the network?
debug ip igrp events
What does the clock rate command do?
It provides clocking on a serial DCE interface.
What protocol does PPP use to identify the Network layer protocol?
NCP - Network COntrol Protocol is used to help identify the network layer protocol used in the packet.
How many root bridges can you have on a network?
What PPP protocol provides dynamic addressing, authentication, and Multilink?
LCP - Link Control Protocol in the PPP stack provides dynamic addressing, authentication, and multilink.
What 3 things are loaded when the router is initialized?
1. Bootstrap 2. The Operating System 3. Configuration File
What does a router do if it cannot find a configuration file?
Enters setup mode
Where is the bootstrap program loaded
Routers breakup ___________ Domains.
Switches breakup ___________ Domains
What is more efficient for relieving congestion on networks?

Switches or Hubs
What are some of the functions of the APPLICATION layer?
Application services
What are some of the functions of the PRESENTATION layer?
Data encryption


Translation services
What is the function of the SESSION layer?
Dialog control
What is the function of the TRANSPORT layer?
End-to-end connection
What is the function of the NETWORK layer?
What is the function of the DATA LINK layer?
What is it call when you place a frame within a different type of frame?
What is the function of the PHYSICAL layer?
Physical topology
What is administrative distance (AD)?
Rates the trustworthiness
(0-255) of the routing information received on a router from a neighbor router. The lower the better.
What is the difference between routed and routing protocols?
Routed protocols are used to transmit user data through an internetwork.

Routing protocols are used to update routing tables between routers.
Default Administrative Distances?
Connected interface 0
Static route 1
IGRP 100
OSPF 110
RIP 120
External EIGRP 170
Unknown 255
What is the command to setup a default route?
ip route XXX.XXX.XXX.0{network ip} XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX{SNM} XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX{interface}
What are routing loops and what can we do to stop them?
Routing loops are caused by every router not being updated simultaneousely.

Some methods of stopping this are adding a Maximum Hop Count, Split Horizon, Route Poisoning, and Holddowns.
How long it takes for a routing table entry to become invalid or questionable is called what?
Maximum hop count
"not allowing routing information to be sent back in the direction it was received" is called what?
Split horizon
Advertising a route as 16
(or infinite) if the route is inconsistently updating is called what?
Route Poisoning
Preventing regular update messages from reinstating a route that is going up and down (flapping) is called what?
Hold downs
What requires an autonomous system number?
What uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as a metric for determining the best route to an internetwork
Remember that all routers in your internetwork must use the same “what” number if you want them to share routing information?
Autonomous system
Where do we get the Autonomous System (AS) Number?
What protocol uses the Autonomous System (AS)?
What command sends routing updates as they are sent and received on the router to the console session?
debug ip rip
What Protocol is a Cisco-proprietary distance-vector routing protocol?
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
What is the classless, enhanced distance-vector protocol that gives us a real edge over another Cisco proprietary protocol, Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)?
Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)
Like IGRP, EIGRP uses the concept of an autonomous system to describe the set of contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and share routing information. But unlike IGRP, EIGRP includes the
______ ________in its route updates.
subnet mask
What are three distinct functions of layer 2 switching?
address learning
forward/filter decisions
loop avoidance
Layer 2 switches and bridges remember the source hardware address of each frame received on an interface, and they enter this information into a MAC database called a forward/filter table.
Address learning
What are the three switching modes?
Cut-through (FastForward)
FragmentFree (modified cut-through)
PDUs at the Network layer of the OSI are called what?
When data is encapsulated, which is the correct order?
Data, segment, packet, frame, bit
What are two purposes for segmentation with a bridge?
-Create more collision

-Add more bandwidth for users.
You try to telnet into SFRouter from router Corp and receive this message:
Corp#telnet SFRouter
Trying SFRouter (
Password required, but none set
[Connection to SFRouter closed by foreign host]
What is the sequences that will address this problem correctly?
D. SFRouter(config)#line vty 0 4
SFRouter(config-line)#password cisco