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41 Cards in this Set

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Canine Distemper (morbilliVIRUS) pathogenesis
Multisystem disease;
oronasal infection, respiratory lymphoid replication; then widespread (lymphoid/marrow/spleen), also into epithelial and CNS if weak immune response
Clinical signs of Distemper
anorexia/depression/pyrexia/discharge (eyes and nose), conjunctivitis, coughing, vomiting and diarrhoea
HYPERKERATOSIS; feet and nose
neurological signs 1-3 weeks after other signs; seizures, myoclonus
Methods of detection; Distemper
HISTORY, clinical signs

RT-PCR from smears, blood or unrine sediment
(difficult to isolate vaccine)

Antibody/Viral Antigen in CSF = DIAGNOSTIC

What are the treatment options for Distemper?
SYMPTOMATIC and SUPPORTIVE; fluids, anticonvulsants etc plus nursing

(no antivirals available)

antibiotics for secondary infections

VACCINATION; modified live, 8-12 weeks old - earlier with higher titre vaccine

Infectious Hepatitis (Canine adenoVIRUS-1) pathogenesis
Systemic disease inc. URT
NB. CAV-2 causes mild respiratory disease

oronasal infection, viraemia; widespread tissues, localises hepatic and endotheilial cells
PERSISTS in Kidneys; in urine for 6-9 months.

Clinical signs of Infectious Hepatitis
usually affects puppies less than a year

pyrexia, depression, lethargy, a reluctance to move and abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, petechial haemorrhages, (+ bleeding from injection sites) haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea, coughing
corneal oedema/uveitis during RECOVERY

Diagnosing Infectious Hepatitis
Faecal samples/oropharyngeal swabs used for virus isolation
histopath at PM; 'Cowdry A-type intraNUCLEAR inclusion bodies'
Treatment of Infectious Hepatitis
SUPPORTIVE and SYMPTOMATIC (no antivirals), inc. antibiotic for secondary infections

VACCINATION uses CAV-2; risk of corneal oedema/blue eye with CAV-1

Canine ParvoVIRUS characteristics
rapidly dividing cells
non-enveloped DNA virus

stable in environment for long periods
CPV-2a and CPV-2b strains

Canine Parvovirus pathogenesis
faeco-oral transmission, replication in lymphoid, viraemia, replication in the CRYPTS

destruction of GI epithelium; stunting/loss of villi

in utero/neonatal exposure = myocardial replication and MYOCARDITIS (rare, MDA protects)

Cinical signs of Parvovirus

SEPSIS and DIC may be the eventual outcome

Diagnosis of Parvovirus

virus detection in faeces (ELISA, PCR, culture); though negative results veiw cautiously
(may be positive 5-7 days after live, attenuated vaccine)
SEROLOGY; care - MDA/vaccination effects

PM - intranuclear inclusion bodies, shortened/lost villi, depletion of GALT

Treatment of Parvovirus
Fluid therapy (fluid/electrolyte balance), antibacterials, antiemetics, INTERFERON

VACCINATION; high/low titre BUT risk of 'immunity gap'; duration of MDA protection affecting ideal timing of first vaccination
high prevalence = high MDA = later vaccination

How is Parvovirus transmitted?
Shed in faeces for 10-12 days; 5-7 after onset of signs; puppies contract via;

direct contact


contaminated environment

hair coats

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE (1 in 30 bleach)

Deciding when to vaccinate depending on local factors;
measure antibodies

when is disease normally seen in the population?

how much MDA have previous litters received?

Canine ENTERIC viruses
rotavirus, coronavirus, calicivirus
Other Canine viruses
canine herpesvirus, papillomavirus, Rabies, Aujesky's disease/pseudorabies
Feline herpesvirus clinical signs;
(enveloped, dsDNA, ONE SEROTYPE)
survives less than a day outside host
sneezing, nasal and ocular discharge, conjunctivitis

dyspnoea, coughing
pyrexia and lethargy

Pathogenesis of Feline herpesvirus
oronasal infection incubates for 2-6 days, as virus multiplies in the oral/respiratory tissues

low mortality, resolves in 10-20 days

CHRONIC DISEASE due to turbinate damage

Diagnosis of Feline herpesvirus
clinical signs +

virus isolation from an oropharyngeal swab

(into VTM, 1st class post, 2 weeks for results)




Feline calicivirus
(ssRNA, non-enveloped, lots of DIFFERENT strains; wider range of symptoms)
survives up to a week outside host
sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis
pneumonia, pyrexia

oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis
shifting lameness in a young cat


Symptoms of Virulent Systemic disease/haemorrhagic syndrome
facial/paw oedema then necrosis, ulceration
respiratory disease, pyrexia, heamorrhagic nasal discharge and faeces, jaundice

vaccinated cats NOT protected

Feline respiratory diseases; transmission
cat-to-cat; infectious discharges
indirect; contaminated personnel, fomites, environment
aerosol transmission minimal, macrodroplets sneezed approx 1 micron

herpes; latency and recrudescence
calici; persistant infection (50% 75 days p.i.)

Bordatella bronchiseptica
(gram NEGATIVE coccobacillus, aerobic)

experimental/field infection clinical signs

sneezing, coughing, nasal/ocular discharge
sub-mandibular lymphandenopathy
pyrexia and lethargy/malaise

dyspnoea/cyanosis, BRONCHOPNEUMONIA

PATHOGENESIS of B. bronchiseptica infection
bacteria attaches to URT cilia leading to ciliary stasis, halting mucociliary clearance, allowing colonisation and the production of virulence factors and toxins
Detection/diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica
oropharyngeal/nasal swab onto charcoal amies transport medium

sheep blood agar not selective; need CHARCOAL CEPHALEXIN AGAR

typing by pulsed-field gel elecrophoresis or compare sequences from molecular typing

(147 strains - antibacterial sensitivity testing)

Antibiotics effective against Bordatella
tetracycline, doxyxycline, enrofloxacin

cluvulanate-potentiated amoxycillin and sulphadiazine - intermediate susceptibility

ampicillin/trimethoprim RESISTANCE

Vaccination against Feline respiratory disease
killed or live vaccines, given subcutaneously/intranasally, especially;

before going to boarding cattery
(even if all cats in cattery vaccinated virus may still be present)

cats in rescue shelters

breeding homes; vaccinate kittens early, or queens for MDA

Other possible causes of Feline URT infection



Haemophilus felis

Infectious tracheobronchitis complex components
Bordetella bronchiseptica

Canine PARAINFLUENZA virus (paramyxo)

Canine adenoviruses -1 and -2

Canine herpesvirus

Canine distemper virus

NB. also, canine respiratory coronavirus, equine influenza and Strep spp

Canine parainfluenza virus (most commonly isolated from kennel cough cases; in oronasal secretions)


multiplication in the epithelial and lymphoid cells of respiratory tract; causing mild cough and serous nasal discharge
(live, attenuated vaccine)
Canine herpesvirus - clinical signs
fading puppy syndrome in puppies under two weeks old

older puppies/adults - external mucous membranes only; URT/genital tract = mild nasal serous discharge

Influenza in Dogs
H3N8 - equine influenza, transmission from horses but now dog to dog transmission (no spread to people)

sometimes infected with human strains

Samples taken to test for B. bronchiseptica
nasal, oropharyngeal swabs
(charcoal amies transport swabs)

transtracheal wash

bronchalveolar lavage

Treatment options for B, bronchispetica
systemic antibacterials

anti-tussives; though do these interfere with clearance of bacteria



Epidemiology of B. bronchieptica
at least 3 months shedding after recovery

may not be fully eliminated by antibacterials

risk of interspecies transmission; dogs to cats, rabbit to human

risk to immunocompromised?

The B. bronchiseptica vaccine
avirulent strain, LIVE vaccine gives both local and systemic protection, but only for a short duration
Important measures for control of Kennel Cough
vaccinate dogs going to kennels
(batch incoming animals in rescue kennels)

isolate affected dogs


prevent contact between animals


Nasal aspergillosis in (young, dolicocephalic breed) dogs
can cause CHRONIC NASAL DISCHARGE + haemorrhage, depigmentation of the nose, PAIN on the muzzle/during eating
(DDx; nasal tumour, idiopathic rhinitis, foreign body, trauma)

prolonged penicillin tx risk factor

imunocompromised at particular risk

Diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis
radiography, serology, fungal culture, direct exam, by process of excluding other diseases!
Treatments for nasal aspergillosis
systemic/topical antifungals

surgically remove affected turbinates