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23 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 functions of blood?


What's in plasma?
91.5% Water

7% Proteins - Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen, Others

1.5% - Other solutes - Electrolytes, Nutrients, Gases, Waste
What are the plasma proteins?


What is albumin?
A plasma protein
What does fibrinogen do?
plasma protein, converted by Thrombin into insoluble fibrin, which forms the threads of a clot.
Describe RBC's and their main purpose.
RBC's are 99% of formed elements

no nucleus
contains hemoglobin

Transports Oxygen and CO2
Describe WBC's and their main purpose.
- Leukocyte cells have nucleus,

- phagocytize

- promote and reduce inflammation
- antibodies and immunity
What is a basophil and what does it do?
granulocyte (WBC)

releases histamine (promotes inflammation)

releases heparin (prevents clot formation)
Describe how O2 is carried?
98% carried by RBC / hemoglobin

Attaches to the iron (Fe) in the heme of hemoglobin.
Describe how CO2 is carried?
Combines with amino acids in globin of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin transports 13% of CO2.
How does hemoglobin utilize Fe?
Each O2 molecule is associated with a Fe atom of a heme
What stimulates the production of RBC's?
low blood levels of O2 - hypoxia
When low levels of O2 are detected in the blood what happens?
kidneys release erythropoietin which stimulates the red bone marrow to produce more RBC's
How long do RBC's stay in circulation?
120 days
What happens when a RBC degenerates and ruptures?
macrophages take up hemoglobin and recycle the Fe and amino acids.

Heme turns into free bilirubin and is sent to the liver to become conjugated with bile.
Describe vascular spasm
immediate (but temporary) constriction of a blood vessel from contraction of smooth muscle in wall of vessel

Activated by damage and release of chemicals: thromboxanes & endothelin
Define thrombus
platelets encounter damaged or diseased areas on the walls of blood vessels or the heart and an attached clot forms

A dislodged thrombus is called an embolus
What is agglutination?
An antigen-antibody response in incompatible blood transfusion. ..RBCs become cross linked to one another. Clumping of the RBCs and hemolysis.

Not the same as blood clotting.
What does it mean if you are Rh-positive?
You have a certain Rh antigen (the D antigen) on surface of RBC's.

86ish% in US are Rh positive
How are Rh antibodies developed in an Rh (-) person?
Exposure to Rh positive blood either in transfusion or in mother from fetus.

Once the Rh (-) person is exposed they develop antibodies against the Rh
What are leukopenia?

Which one is usually present with leukemia?
Leukopenia - lower than normal WBC count

Leukocytosis - higher than normal WBC count

leukocytosis is present usually in leukemia
What is Bilirubin?
non-iron portion of heme. Discarded to liver as a yellow orange pigment.
What is emigration?
WBCs are able to cross capillary walls by squeezing between endothelial cells.