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31 Cards in this Set

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What is cardiac output?


What is the eqaution?

Volume of blood being pumped by the heart in particular by a left or right ventricle




CO=HRxSV

What is stroke volume?


What is it measured in?

Amount of blood pumped out of the heart (LV) to body during each contraction.


Measured in mL/beat

Rate of blood flow back to the heart is called what?

Venous return

What is Peripheral resistance

Resistance of arteries to blood flow:




As the arteries constrict, the resistance increases and as they dilate, resistance decreases.

Blood Pressure = what x what?

BP= CO x PR

Measured as the max and min pressure in large systemic arteries at level of the heart is what?

Blood pressure

if there is constriction of arteries and arterioles the resistance to flow will ________ and blood pressure will _______

Increase, increase

If there is dilation of arteries and arterioles the resistance will ________ and blood pressure will ______

Decrease, decrease

Anything that alters the viscosity of blood alters the _______.

Friction

What is systolic pressure?

The peak of pressure wave.



Diastolic pressure is what?

Lowest point it reaches before next pulse

Relaxation of heart is _____ pressure


Contraction of heart is ______ pressure

Diastolic


Systolic

Difference between Systolic and Diastolic Pressure is called?

Mean arteriole pressure (MAP)

What is the equation for MAP?



MAP= SP-DP/3 + DP

Why does pressure drop in the arterioles?

Arterioles are smaller and it is harder for blood to get through.


Resistance causes pulse pressure to get smaller.

Baroreceptors measure what?

Blood pressure

Chemoreceptors respond to what?

Changes in blood PH co2 and 02

Cardiac output is controlled by what?

Cardiovascular center

Peripheral resistance is controlled by what?

Vasomotor center

Where are baroreceptors?

Aortic arch and caratoid sinusus

What hormones control BP? ( 4 As)

Adrenaline and noradrenaline


Angiotensin 2


Antidhiretic


Atrial Nautic Peptide (ANP)

Angiotensin 2 helps to do what?



what does it secrete?


Helps relax blood vessels


This lowers BP and makes it easier for the yeast to pump blood.




Sodium

Baroreceptor reflex




-D_____ in B____ P______


-B_______ send messages to B______


-S_________ impulses to heart to __crease ___ and ___


-V______ stimulates vaso______



Drops, Blood, Pressure


Baroreceptors, Brain


Sympathetic, HR, CO


Vasomotor, constriction

What does the renal system do to help?




How does it do this?

Counteracts fluctuations in BP by altering Blood Volume




removing fluid from circulation





Aldosterone comes from where and does what?

Adrenal cortex




Increases Na and H20 reabsorption

Antidiuretic hormone does what? this ______ blood volume

Put out less urine




Increases

How do the kidneys help maintain BP?

kidneys make hormones: renin and angiotensin.



These hormones regulate how much sodium and fluid the body keeps, and how well the blood vessels can expand and contract.



What affects stroke volume?

1. Preload : Preload is the load, or stretch, put on the ventricle by the amount of entering blood volume Just like a balloon filling with water




2. Afterload: resistance the ventricle must pump against to eject the stroke volume.





How does the sympathetic nervous system maintain BP?

If an increase in blood pressure is necessary, nerve impulses send messages to increase heart rate and cause the heart to contract more forcefully. It also causes blood vessels to constrict, increasing the resistance of the vessels. These responses increase SV, which increases the BP

How does the Adrenal Gland help maintain BP?

secretes the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Both these hormones act to increase the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute. They also cause the blood vessels to constrict. These actions will assist with increasing blood pressure.

Increases HR and increase SV causes and increase in?

Cardiac output