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7 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Angina Pectoris

Decreased blood supply to the portion of the myocardium leading to temporary ischemia , usually due to atherosclerotic deposits in the coronary arteries

S/S


P - exercise, activity, stress, eating too much


Q - feels like pressure, chest tightness, a weight on the chest, burning


R - usually felt substernal, or epigastric - may radiate to the jaw, neck, shoulder or arm - usually on the left


S - usually ranked as mild or moderate pain or discomfort


T - sudden onset, it is a little s only 3 - 5 minutes, rarely past 10


Associated signs / symptoms - dyspnea, diaphoresis, nausea or vomiting, severe apprehension, belching

Myocardial Infarction

Decreased blood supply to a portion of the myocardium leading to ischemia and death of the myocardium usually do to a blood clot (thrombus) in the coronary arteries

S/S


P - exercise, activities, stress - but there may be no provoking Factor


Q - feels like pressure, chest tightness, a weight on the chest, burning


R - usually felt substernal, or epigastric - may radiate to the jaw, neck, shoulder or arm - usually on the left


S - usually ranked as moderate to severe pain or discomfort


T - sudden onset, usually last 30 minutes or longer


Assoc. S/S


- Nausea / vomiting


- diaphoresis


- Dyspnea, orthopnea


- Irregular pulse


- Sudden onset of weakness or lightheadedness


- denial

Left Sided CHF

-Chronic weakening of the left ventricle due to failure under excessive workload, old infarction, faulty valves


- caused by chronic hypertension, excessive nicotine use, previous MI, beta blocker use


- Left ventricular ejection fraction drops, but write hearts remains the same , excess blood pools in the lungs causing pulmonary edema

S/S


- Slow onset, often over several days - but may not be noticed until acute


- Dyspnea, shortness of breath, productive cough


-orthopnea= difficulty breathing when lying supine


- Setting up - often found propped up on pillows - may have spent the last evening that way, sleeping in chair


- Pulmonary edema - from excessive pulmonary capillary pressure and increase respiratory effort= greater inspiratory vacuum

Right Sided CHF

-Chronic weakening of the right ventricle to to failure under excessive workload, or right ventricular infarction


- Caused by chronic respiratory disease, pulmonary hypertension


- Right ventricular ejection fraction drops, but Venous return remains the same, excess blood pools in the lower extremities, causing dependent edema

S/S


- Dependent edema (pedal edema)


- jugular vein distinction


- Liver engorgement - ascites

Hypertensive Crises "symptomatic hypertension"

This is hypertension with the risk that prolonged hypertension can lead to an aneurysm bursting or to heart failure from the excessive workload

S/S


Hypertension with angina, pulmonary edema, pregnancy, or signs of cerebral edema ( such as unusually severe headache, blurred vision / visual disturbances, nausea or vomiting, altered mental status, focal neurological signs of deficit, paresthesias, dizziness, vertical or tinnitus) , epistaxis, chest pain, shortness of breath, abdominal or back pain

Hypertensive Emergancy

any kind of systolic is more than or equal to 160 or diastolic is more than or equal to 94 , this is considered to be a medical emergency that must be transported

S/S


- pulse that is strong, bounding


- Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)


- Headache


- epistaxis


- Nausea / vomiting

Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm

hey ballooning of the wall of the artery as a result of a defect, leading to a dissecting (separating layers) which tends the number of layers containing the blood pressure and as some of the ballooning pushes inward, can decrease aortic blood flow

S/S


P - lifting heavy weights, straining


Q - tearing, hot, knife like


R - pain from anterior chest, boring through the back


S - very severe, and hits maximum at time of onset (doesn't build up)


T - sudden onset


Assoc. S/S


- Unequal right and left radial pulses


- Unequal femoral pulses


- Unequal blood pressures in right and left arms