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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

  • How is EF calculated? What are normal values?
  • What are the three general determinants of SV? What determines each?

  • EF = SV (70 mL)/EDV (100 mL) = ~60-70%
  • Preload (EDV, which depends on venous return)
  • Afterload (vascular resistance)
  • Contractility (via SNS)

What are the primary determinants of heart rate? What are determinants of each?

  • Intrinsic system (automaticity, rhythmicity, intercalated discs)
  • PSNS (ACh release, Vagal tone)
  • SNS (NE release via nerves, E via adrenal glands)
  • Chemical and hormonal responses

  • What rate does the SA node fire at? AV node? Purkinje Fibers?
  • What kind of vessels are large arteries referred to as?
  • What kind of vessels are arterioles? How do they compare to arteries?
  • What kind of vessels are veins? What are 2 features?
  • SA = 60-100 bpm, AV = 40-60 bpm, Purkinje = 20-40 bpm
  • Distribution vessels
  • Resistance vessels; lower radius, less elasticity, 1º determinants of vascular resistance
  • Capacitance vessels (1-way flow, requires extravascular compression)
  • How do arterioles change flow? How are they controlled?

  • What are pre-capillary sphincters?
  • How do they behave?
  • Bunches of smooth muscle at the junction of arterioles and capillaries
  • They contract at rest to restrict local blood flow and open during exercise to increase local blood flow

How does the SNS effect blood circulation?

  • Triggers release of NE from nerves and E from adrenals
  • Increases HR and contractility
  • General vasoconstriction (though overridden in coronary circulation and locally at areas of high metabolism)

What are three factors affecting coronary circulation?

  1. ↑ local metabolism leads to vasodilation
  2. ↑ HR leads to ↓ filling time, ↓ circulation because coronary arteries are blocked during systole
  3. SNS (overridden by local metabolism, but it still factors in)

  • What is considered normal BP?
  • Pre-hypertension
  • Stage I hypertension
  • Stage II hypertension
  • Both SBP: <120 and DBP: <80
  • SBP: >120-140 or DBP: 80-89
  • SBP: > 140-159 or DBP: 90-99
  • SBP: >160 or DBP: >100

  • How is the Valsalva maneuver performed?
  • How does this change intrathoracic pressure?
  • How does this impact blood flow?
  • How does this affect SV and BP?
  • What is classified as orthostatic hypotension?
  • Maximal activation of expiratory muscles vs. closed glottis
  • Drastically increases intrathoracic pressure
  • ↓ venous return due to collapsed IVC
  • Leads to ↓ preload, leading to ↓ SV and BP
  • >20 mmHG drop in either SBP or DBP in response to position change