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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What molecule is this?

What molecule is this?

alpha glucose

What does ABBA stand for?

OH- group Alpha Below Beta Above

What is a condensation reaction?

A chemical reaction that combines biological monomers


Covalent bond is formed


Water molecule is released



What is a hydrolysis reaction?

splitting larger molecules into smaller ones


Covalent bond is broken


Water molecule used

What is metabolism?

Sum total of all biochemical reactions taking place in the cells of an organism

What are the similar properties of monosacchrides?

What are the similar properties of monosacchrides?

1. Soluble in water


2.Sweet tasting


3. Form cyrstals

What do two monosacchrides form?

diasacchraide

What is the general formula of monosaccharides?

(CH2O)n

Which two monosacchrides form lactose?

glucose and galactose

What is sucrose formed from?

glucose and fructose

What bond is formed in a condensation reaction between monosacchrides?

glycosidic bond

What is Maltose formed from?

two glucose molecules

Out of these sugars which is a non reducing sugar?


Maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, galactose

Sucrose, the rest are reducing, all monosacchrisdes are reducing sugars

Why is it useful that starch is insoluble?

It does not affect the water potential of the cell, water doesnt move in by osmosis

Where is starch found?

It is the main storage molecule in plants

What is the difference between amylose and amylopectin?

Amylose is alpha glucose monomers joind by 1,4 glycosidic bonds (forms long chains)


Amylopectin has 1,4 glycosidic bonds as well as 1,4 glycosidic bonds. (branched)

What kind of molecule is starch?

polysaccharide

Why are the glycosidic bonds in starch hydrolysed to form alpha glucose?

Alpha glucose monomers can be easily transported for respiration

Why can starch be stored in a small space?

Small and compact

Where is glycogen found?

animals and bacteria- liver and muscles

How is glycogen different to starch?

more branches and shorter chains

Why is glycogen highly branched?

So the glycosidic bonds can be rapidly hydrolysed by enzymes to form alpha glucose monomers which can be easily transported and used in respiration

Why is it important that glycogen is a quicker energy source than the equivalent amylopectin in plants?

Animals are more active than plants and have a higher metabolic and respiration rate

Animals are more active than plants and have a higher metabolic and respiration rate

What characteristics of glycogen allow it to be stored in cells?

insoluble- does not affect the water potential of the cell


Compact- can be stored in a small space

What molecule is this?

What molecule is this?

Amylopectin

How is cellulose different to glycogen and starch in terms of monomers?

Cellulose is formed from beta glucose monomers whereas glycogen and starch are made of alpha glucose

Where is cellulose formed?

plant cell walls (cellulose cell wall)

plant cell walls (cellulose cell wall)

What are parallel chains of beta glucose linked together by?

Hydrogen bonds between the many OH- groups

What do many parallel chains of beta glucose held together by hydogen bonds between OH-groups form?

microfibrils

What bonds are beta glucose monomers held together by to form chains

1,4 glycosidic bonds

What results in alternate glycosidic bonds in cellulose?

each monomer is rotaed 180 degrees to the next

What do microfibrils do?

They are very strong and support the cell wall and prevent it from bursting when cell becomes turgid

Why can mammals not digest cellulose?

Why can mammals not digest cellulose?

They do not have cellulase

Why can herbivores digest cellulose?

Why can herbivores digest cellulose?

Have symbiotic bacteria to produce cellulases

What is the test for reducing sugar?

What is the test for reducing sugar?

Benedicts: add an equal volume of benedicts to solution being tested; heat to 80C in waterbath; Solution changes colour from blue to a red precipitate forms

What is the test for starch?

What is the test for starch?

Add iodine; changes colour from yellow/brown to black

Why is NaOH added when testing for non reducing sugar?

To neutralise acid

Why is acid added (HCl) when testing for non-reducing sugar?

to break glycosidic bonds

What is the colour change when testing for for non reducing sugar?

blue to red precipitate forming

Describe how a test for non reducing sugar is carried out

add acid (HCl) and heat to 80C in waterbath. Add NaOH and benedictssolution. Heat in water bath again for 5 mins