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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Locally aggressive benign tumor around the knee (epiphyseal end of long bones); "soap bubble" appearance on X-ray; multinucleated giant cells
Giant cell tumor ("osteoclastoma"); most common in 20-40 yr old
Most common benign tumor (an exostosis of the bone); mature bone with cartilaginous cap
Osteochondroma; males <25
2nd most common primary malignant bone tumor; in the metaphysis of long bones (often around the knee); codman triangle (elevation of periosteum) and sunburst patteron on x-ray
Osteosarcoma; 10-20 yrs and >65 yrs; aggressive--treat with surgical en block resection and chemo; predisposing factors include paget's disease, radiation, familial retinoblastoma, bone infarcts, li-fraumeni
Most common primary malignant bone tumor; fatigue, confusion, constipation, back pain. Fried egg appearance on PBS with rouleaux formation of RBCs and numerous plasma cells with "clock face" chromatin--basophilic cytoplasm.
Multiple myeloma. M spike (gamma spike). Hypercalcemia, Renal involvement, Anemia (normochromic, normocytic), Bone lytic lesions/back pain. Bence Jones proteins in urine (Ig light chains), AL amyloidosis.
Anaplastic small blue cell malignant tumor; "onion skin" periosteal reaction in bone (commonly diaphysis of long bones, pelvis, scapula, and ribs)
Ewing Sarcome; boys <15 yrs; associated with 11;22 translocation (fusion protein EWS-FLI 1); extremely aggressive with early metastases, but responsive to chemo
Most common skin cancer; pink, pearly nodules with rolled borders and central crusting/ulceration (or nonhealing ulcer with infiltrating growth); palisading nuclei
Basal cell carcinoma; locally invasive but rarely metastatizes
Second most common skin cancer; ulcerative red lesions with frequent scale on face, lower lip, ears; associated with chronic draining sinuses; keratin "pearls" on histology
Squamous cell carcinoma; associated with sun exposure, arsenic exposure (occasionally), and immunosuppression; locally invasive and may spread to lymph nodes but rarely metastatizes; preceded by actinic keratosis (scaly plaque); keratoacanthoma--rapidly growing and receding variant
Asymmetric, irregular borders, color variation, diameter >6mm, evolving over time
Melanoma; common in fair skinned persons with exposure to sunlight; significant risk of metastasis; often driven by mutations in BRAF kinase (tx with vemurafenib); S-100 tumor marker
Bleeding, mediastinal mass, increased lymphoblasts with high N:C, variably condensed chromatin, and prominent nucleoli in the PBS, in a child <15?
Most likely ALL. TdT+ (pre-T or B cell). 85% B cell (CD10+)
Small, round, monomorphic B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood with smudge cells in a patient > 60 yrs
CLL. Most common adult leukemia. CD20+, CD5+ B-cell neoplasm. Often asymptomatic. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (warm and cold agglutinins). 13q deletion
Patient with splenomegaly, cytopenias, dry tap on aspiration, TRAP+, with filamentous, hair-like projections
Hairy cell leukemia. CD20+. Mature B cell tumor in the elderly. Treat with cladribine or pentostatin
65 year old patient presenting with DIC, increased circulating myeloblasts (large nucleated cells) with scant cytoplasm, auer rods and peroxidase + cytoplasmic inclusions?
AML (M3); 15;17 translocation; responsive to all-trans retinoic acid; risk factors include Down's Syndrome, exposure to alkylating chemotherapy, radiation
64 year old patient with splenomegaly, increased neutrophils, basophils, and metamyelocytes, and low LAP?
CML. Philadelphia chromosome 9;22 translocation, BCR-ABL. Responds to imatinib.
"starry sky" appearance, with sheets of lymphocytes and interspresed macrophages
Burkitt lymphoma. T(8;14) translocation of c-myc and heavy chain IgG (14). Or 8;22 or 8;2. Potentiated in immunodeficiency; associated with EBV.
Large lymph node in an older adult
Diffuse large B cell mymphoma. Most common type of NHL in adults. Aggressive.
Painless "waxing and waning" lymphadenopathy. Nodular small cells with cleaved nuclei and high N:C.
Follicular lymphoma. 14;18 translocation of BCL2 (18). Indolent course.
Older male with CD5+ and elevated cyclin D
Mantle cell lymphoma. 11;14 cyclin D (11).
Cutaneous lesions in an adult from Japan, with lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, and rash
Adult T cell lymphoma. Caused by HTLV (IV drug abuse).
Skin patches and plaques characterized by atypical CD4+ cells with "cerebriform" nuclei
Mycosis fungoides. May progress to Sezary syndrome (systemic, In blood)
Child with lytic bone lesions, skin rash, and recurrent otitis media with a mass involving the mastoid bone. Birbeck granules (tennis rackets) on EM.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Cells are functionally immature and do not effectively stimulate T cells via APC. S-100+ (mesodermal origin) and CD1a.
Submandibular lymphadenopathy, biopsy shows squamous cell carcinoma. Where is the primary site?
Likely tongue. Head and neck SCCs most commonly are in the ventral tongue, floor of the mouth, lower lip, soft palate, or gingiva.
Patient presents with opsoclonus-myoclonus. Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children; Homer-Wright Rosettes, Bombesin and neuron-specific enolase +. Firm, irregular abdominal mass that crosses the midline.
Neuroblastoma. Occurs anywhere along the sympathetic chain. HVA and VMA are increased in urine. Associated with overexpression of N-myc.
Smooth, unilateral abdominal mass in a child
Wilms tumor
Patient presents with episodic headache, hypertension, perspiration, and palpitations. Enlarged, pleiomorphic cells. Increased metanephrines in the urine.
Pheochromocytoma. Tumors secrete NE, Epi, and dopamine. Derived from chromaffin cells (neural crest). 10% rule: malignant, bilateral, extra-adrenal, calcify, kids, hereditary. Tx with phenoxybenzamine + beta blockers (alpha blockade must be achieved before giving BBs to avoid a hypertensive crisis!), and resection.
Empty-appearing nuclei with central clearing ("orphan annie eyes"), psammoma bodies, nuclear grooves. Lymphatic invasion.
Papillary carcinoma. Most common thyroid cancer. Excellent prognosis. Associated with RET and BRAF mutations and childhood irradiation.
Invasion of thyroid capsule with uniform follicles
Follicular carcinoma. Associated with BCL2 and RAS mutations. Good prognosis.
Sheets of cells in an amyloid stroma in the thyroid; polygonal or spindle-shaped cells
Medullary carcinoma. From parafollicular C cells (produces calcitonin).Hematogenous spread is common. Associated with MEN2A and 2B (RET mutations)
Thyroid tumor with invasion of local structures in an older patient
Undifferentiated/anaplastic carcinoma. Pleiomorphic irregular giant cells and aggressive. P53 associated.
Affects women who had in utero exposure to DES
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Precursor to vaginal adenosis
3 year old girl presenting with clear, grape-like polypoid mass emerging from the vagina. Spindle shaped, desmin+ cells.
Sarcoma botryoides (rhabdomyosarcoma variant). Affects girls <4 years old.
Woman presents with postcoital bleeding; hx of multiple sexual partners.
Cervical cancer. Dysplasia-->carcinoma in situ-->invasive carcinoma. HPV 16,18,31,33. E6 gene product inhibits p53, E7 inhibits Rb. Detect early with pap smear--koilocytes (wrinkled, raisinoid nuclei with perinuclear halo). Dx via colposcopy and biopsy. Lateral invasion can block ureters.
Ovarian cancer
Most common adnexal mass in women >55. Benign or malignant. Most are epithelial. Risk increases with advanced age, infertility, endometriosis, PCOS, genetic predisposition (BRCA1/2). Risk decreases with previous pregnancy, breastfeeding, OCPs, tubal ligation. Presents with adnexal mass, abdominal distension, bowel obstruction, pleural effusion. Monitor by measuring CA125 levels.
Most common ovarian neoplasm. Lined with fallopian tube-like epithelium.
Serous cystadenoma. Often bilateral. Benign.
Multiloculated, large ovarian mass, lined by mucus-secreting epithelium
Mucinous cystadenoma. Benign.
Endometriosis within ovary with cyst formation. "Chocolate cyst." Presents with pelvic pain, dysmennorhea, dyspareunia--varies with menstrual cycle.
Endometrioma. Mass filled with blood. Benign.
Most common ovarian cell tumor in women 20-30. Contains elements from all 3 germ layers.
Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst). Benign. Can present with pain secondary to ovarian enlargement or torsion. Can contain functional thyroid tissue and present as hyperthyroidism (struma ovarii)
Ovarian tumor that looks like bladder. "Coffee bean" nuclei on H&E
Brenner tumor. Solid tumor that is pale yellow-tan and appears encapsulated. Benign.
Bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts in the ovary. "Pulling" sensation in groin.
Fibroma.Benign. Meigs syndrome: ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax.
Estrogen producing ovarian neoplasm presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding in a postmenopausal woman
Thecoma. Benign.
Aggressive ovarian neoplasm containing fetal tissue and neuroectoderm
Immature teratoma. Malignant.
Most common malignatn stromal tumor. Predominantly women in 50s. Presents with abnormal uterine bleeding, sexual precocity (in preadolescents), breast tenderness. Call-Exner bodies on histology.
Granulosa cell tumor. Malignant. Call-Exner bodies show granulosa cells arranged haphazardly around eosinophilic fluid. Increased estrogen and progesterone. Yellow cut surface.
Most common ovarian neoplasm, frequently bilateral, with psammoma bodies
Serous (papillary) cystadenocarcinoma. Malignant. Increased CA125.
Intraperotineal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian or appendiceal tumor
Mucinous cystadnocarcinoma. Malignant.
Most common in adolescent women (10-30), with "fried egg" cells. Ovarian neoplasm.
Dysgerminoma. Malignant. Equivalent to male seminoma. Increased hCG and LDH.
Ovarian neoplasm developing after pregnancy, in mother or baby. Soft and yellow-white with areas of necrosis and hemmorhage. Increased BhCG, shortness of breath, hemoptysis.
Choriocarcinoma. Malignant. Hematogenous spread to lungs. Malignancy of trophoblastic tissue. No chorionic villi present. Very responsive to chemo.
Aggressive tumor in ovaries or testes and sacrococcygeal area. Most common tumor in male infants. Yellow, friable, solid mass with Schiller-Duval bodies. Increased AFP.
Yolk sac tumor. Malignant. Schiller-Duval bodies resemble glomeruli.
GI malignancy that metastatizes to ovaries, often bilaterally. Mucin-secreting signet cell adenocarcinoma.
Krukenberg tumor.
Well-circumscribed collection of endometrial tissue within the uterine wall.
Most common endometrial tumor in females. Peak at 20-40. Whroled pattern of smooth muscle bundles with well-demarcated borders.
Leiomyoma (fibroid)
Extension of endometrial tissue in uterine myometrium. Presents with dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, uniformly enlarged, soft, globular uterus.
Adenomyosis. Tx: GnRH agonists, hysterectomy
Non-neoplatic endometrial glands/stroma outside the endometrial cavity. Most common sites are ovary, pelvis, peritoneum. Presents with pelvic pain, dyspareunia, dyschezia, Normal sized-uterus.
Endometriosis. May be due to retrograde flow, metaplastic transformation, or transportation of cells via lymphatics.
Abnormal endometrial gland proliferation. Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.
Endometrial hyperplasia. Risk factors: anovulatory cycles, HRT, PCOS, granulosa cell tumor.
Most common gynecologic malignancy. Peak at 55-65. Vaginal bleeding.
Endometrial carcinoma. Preceded by endometrial hyperplasia. Risk factors: prolonged use of E without P, obesity, DM, HTN, nulliparity, late menopause, Lynch syndrome.
Inflammation of endometrium associated with retained products of conception, miscarraige, IUD…
Endometritis, Infection. Tx: gentamicin + clindamycin w/ or w/out ampicillin
Small, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges in a woman under 35. Increased tenderness prior to menstruation.
Fibroadenoma. Cellular, myxoid stroma with glandular and cystic spaces.
Small tumor of lactiferous ducts beneath areola, most common in the 5th decade
Intraductal papilloma
Large, bulky mass of connective tissue and cyst, with "leaf-like" projections
Phyllodes tumor.
Most important prognostic factor in malignant breast cancer
Axillary lymph node involvement
Breast tumor that fills lumen but does not invade
DCIS. Microcalcifications on mammography.
Ductal, central necrosis in breast
Eczematous patches on nipple, large cells with clear halo
Paget's disease. Results from underlying DCIS or invasive breast cancer
Firm, fibrous, rock hard breast mass with sharp margins and small, glandular, duct-like cells. "Stellate" inflitration
Invasive ductal breast cancer. Worst and most invasive. Most common. Malignant
Ordelry rows of cells ("indian file") in a breast tumor, due to decreased E cadherin expression
Invasive lobular. Often bilateral with multiple lesions. Malignant
Fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate in breast cancer. Solid sheets of vesicular, pleiomorphic, mitotic cells.
Medullary breast cancer. Malignant
Dermal lymphocytic invasion by breast cancer--"peau d'orange" appearance. Neoplastic cells block lymphatic drainage.
Inflammatory breast cancer. 50% survival at 5 years.
Cancer of glans, presenting as erythroplakia
Erythroplasia of Queyrat. SCC. Associated with HPV, lack of circumcision.
Carcinoma in situ, reddish papules on penis.
Bowenoid papulosis. SCC. Associated with HPV, lack of circumcision.
Leukoplakia of penile shaft
Bowen disease. SCC. Associated with HPV, lack of circumcision.
Homogenous testicular enlargement; most common testicular tumor (3rd decade). Large cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm and "fried egg" appearance
Seminoma; malignant germ cell tumor. Increase in placental ALP. Late metastasis, excellent prognosis.
Yellow, mucinous germ cell tumor. Schiller-Duval bodies (resembling primitive glomeruli). Increased AFP. Most common in boys <3
Yolk sac tumor. Analagous to ovarian yolk sac tumor.
Malignant testicular germ cell tumor with increased hCG. Hematogenous metastases to lungs/brain. Gynecomastia, hyperthyroidism
Choriocarcinoma. Disordered trophoblastic tissue.
Increased hCG and AFP in male
Mature teratoma-malignant in adults, benign in children.
Malignant, hemorrhagic testicular mass with necrosis, painful. Glandular/papillary morphology.
Embryonal carcinoma. Incraesed hCG, AFP
Reinke crystals (eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions) in testicular tumor; gynecomastia, precocious puberty; golden brown color
Leydig cell tumor.
Androblastoma of testicle from sex cord stroma
Sertoli cell tumor
Most common testicular cancer in older men. Metastatic.
Testicular lymphoma
Men >50 years. Back pain, increased serum ALP and PSA
Prostatic adenocarcinoma. Posterior lobe. PAP and PSA are tumor markers. Osteoblastic metastases to bone (lumbar spine)
Tumor of the PCT cells of the kidney; most common in men 50-70, smoking and obesity. Hematuria, flank pain, fever, weight loss. Polygonal CLEAR cells filled with lipid.
Rena cell carcinoma. Spreads hematogenously to lung, bone, adrenals, liver. Associated with VHL and paraneoplastic syndromes (Epo). Resistant to chemo and radiation.
Benign epithelial tumor of the kidney; large eosinophilic cells with abundant mitochondria and no perinuclear clearing. Painless hematuria, flank pain, abdominal mass.
Renal oncocytoma.
Most common renal malignancy of childhood; large, palpable, unilateral flank mass
Wilms tumor. WT1/2 mutations on chromosome 11. Contains embryonic glomerular structures. WAGR: Wilms tumor, aniridia, GU malformations, mental Retardation.
Painless hematuria with no casts in someone exposed to rubber, plastics, textiles, leather, dyes, cyclophosphamide…
Transitional cell carcinoma. Most common tumor of the GU system. Hyperchromatic, papillary growth with high N:C.
Results from chronic irritation of the urinary bladder (e.g., chronic UTIs or Schistosoma haematobium infection, smoking)
Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Presents with painless hematuria.
Most common cardiac tumor
Most common primary tumor of the heart; most commonly in the left atria; "ball valve" obstruction--early diastolic plop
Myxoma; scattered cells in mucopolysaccharide stroma with angiogenesis. Increased IL-6 production leads to weight loss.
Most frequent primary cardiac tumor in children
Rhabdomyoma; associated with tuberous sclerosis
Rare blood vessel malignancy, typically of the head, neck, or breast area; often in the elderly in sunexposed areas. Associated with chemotherapy and postmastectomy lymphadenopathy
Angiosarcoma. Hepatic angiosarcoma associated with viny chloride/arsenic exposure. Aggressive and difficult to resect.
Benign capillary skin papules found in AIDs patients; neutrophilic infiltrate
Bacillary angiomatosis. Caused by Bartonella henslae infection. Frequently mistaken for Kaposi's sarcoma.
Benign capillary hemangioma of the elderly. Does not regress
Cherry hemangioma
Cavernous lymphangioma of the neck; associated with Turner Syndrome
Cystic hygroma
Benign, painful, red-blue tumor under the finger nail
Glomus tumor; modified smooth muscle cell of the thermoregulatory glomus body
Endothelial malignancy of the skin (also mouth, GI tract, respiratory tract) in AIDs patients; lymphocytic infiltrate
Kaposi sarcoma; associated with HHV8. Frequently mistaken for bacillary angiomatosis.
Polypoid capillary hemangioma that can ulcerate and bleed; associated with trauma and pregnancy
Pyogenic granuloma
Benign capillary hemangioma of infancy
Strawberry hemangioma. Appears in first few weeks of life, grows rapidly, and regresses by 5-8 years old
Benign tumor of the parotid gland; painless, mobile mass composed of chondromyxoid stroma and epithelium
Pelomorphic ademoma. Recurs if not removed in totality
Malignant tumor of the parotid gland; mucinous and squamous components
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Presents as a painless, slow growing mass
Benign cystic tumor of the parotid gland, with germinal centers
Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum)
Esophageal cancer associated with alcohol consumption, cigarette use, diverticula, esophageal webs, and hot liquids
Squamous cell carcinoma. Solid nests of neoplastic squamous cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and distinct borders. Keratin pearls. Progressive dysphagia. Most common type in the world.
Esophageal cancer associated with barrett esophagus, cigarette use, obesity, and GERD.
Adenocarcinoma. Most common type in America.
Gastric cancer associated with H. pylori, dietary nitrosamines, tobacco, chronic gastritis; typically on lesser curvature. Ulcerated with raised margins
Intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma
Gastric cancer not associated with H. pylori; signet ring cells; stomach wall grossly thickened and leathery
Diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma. Associated with Krukenberg tumor (bilateral metastases to ovaries)
Palcolonic polyps starting at puberty; 100% progress to CRC
FAP + malignant CNS tumor
Turcot syndrome
FAP + osseous/soft tissue tumors + retinal epithelium hypertrophy
Gardner syndrome
Hamartomatous polyps + pigmentation around mouth, lips, genitals, hands
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
CRC + endometrial, ovarian, skin cancer in 3 family members, 2 generations, 1 before 50
HNPCC. DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (microsatellite instability)
Iron deficiency anemia + hematochezia + colicky pain in a 55 year old man. Apple core lesion on barium enema.
Colorectal cancer. Rectosigmoid>ascending>descending>transverse. Left side obstructs, right side bleeds. Associated with IBD, tobacco use, low fiber, familial cancer syndromes. CEA (cell adhesion) tumor marker for recurrence--not screening.
Most common malignant primary liver tumor of adults; associated with HBV, HBC, hemachromatosis, aflatoxin, alpha 1 antitrypsin, etc. Increased AFP.
Hepatocellular carcinoma. Any cause of cirrhosis predisposes. May lead to Budd-Chiari syndrome.
Common, benign liver tumor. 30-50 years. Biopsy contraindicated--risk of hemmorhage
Cavernous hemangioma
Rare, benign liver tumor, associated with use of OCPs or steroids. Regresses spontaneously or may rupture
Hepatic adenoma
Most common tumor of liver
Metastases (GI, breast, lung)
Liver tumor in children, associated with FAP and Beckwith-Wiedmann.
Hepatoblastoma. Fatal in a few years.
Tumor of the hepatic bile ducts. Treelike mass.
Cholangiocarcinoma. Risk factors include primary sclerosing cholangitis, fibropolycystic liver disease, liver flukes
Patient presents with abdominal pain radiating to the back, weight loss, migratory thrombophlebitis (Trousseau syndrome), obstructive jaundice with palpable, nontender gallbladder (Courvoisier sign)
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CA19-9 tumor marker. Very aggressive tumor arising from pancreatic ducts (disorganized glandular structure with cellular infiltration). Already metastatized at presentation. Most common in the pancreatic head. Risk factors: tbacco, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, >50 years, jewish/african american males. Tx with Whipple procedure, chemo, radiation
Endocarditis associated with pancreatic cancer
"Marantic" nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Sterile, nondestructive, fibrinous vegetations on leaflet edges.
Centrally located lung lesion with a hilar mass, producing ACTH, ADH, or antibodies (e.g., Lambert-Eaton syndrome). Kulchitsky cells (small, dark blue cells)
Small cell carcinoma. Very aggressive. Myc oncogenes. Neuroendocrine cell stain positive (Chromagranin, synaptophysin, etc.).
Nonsmoker presenting with copious, watery, tan sputum. Most common lung cancer overall. Mucin +, glandular pattern. Peripheral lesion. Clubbing of the fingers.
Adenocarcinoma. Hazy infiltrates on Xray, similar to pneumonia. No vascular/lymph spread. Excellent prognosis.
Centrally located hyilar mass arising from bronchus. Polygonal cells with keratin pearls and intercellular bridges. Associated with smoking. Causes hypercalcemia, cavitation.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Produces PTHrP.
Highly anaplastic undifferentiated peripheral lung tumor. Pleiomorphic giant cells that can secrete HCG.
Large cell carcinoma. Removed surgically. Poor prognosis.
Carcinoid syndrome due to lung tumor. Nests of chromagranin A+ neuroendocrine cells.
Bronchial carcinoid tumor.
Malignancy of the pleura; can cause hemorrhagic pleural effusion and pleural thickening. Psammoma bodies. Associated with exposure to asbestos.
Mesothelioma. Smoking is not a risk factor. Numerous long, slender microvilli and abundant tonofilaments.
Well-differentiated coin lesion with popcorn calcifications; benign
Pulmonary chondroma (hamartoma).
Most common primary brain tumor in adults. Psueodpalisading, pleiomorphic tumor cells. Can cross corpus callosum. GFAP+
Glioblatoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma). Commonly in frontal or temporal lobes. Pleiomorphic tumor cells with central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, with abundant neovascularization.
Common primary adult brain tumor at the convexities of the hemispheres and parasagittal region. Arises from arachnoid cells. Often asymptomatic. Spindle cells with whorls and psammoma bodies.
Cerebellar tumor producing epo; in an adult.
Hemangioblastoma. VHL when found with retinal angiomas.
Adult brain tumor at the cerebellopontine angle. S-100+.
Schwannoma. Commonly associated with VIII. Resectable or treated with steroids/radiosurgery. When bilateral--NF2.
Relatively rare, slow growing adult brain tumor of the frontal lobe. "Chicken wire" capillary pattern. "Fried egg" cells. Often calcified.
Adult brain tumor causing bitemporal hemianopsia.
Pituitary adenoma. Most commonly prolactinoma. Hyper or hypopituitarism can result.
Benign tumor of third ventricle
Colloid cyst
Well circumscribed tumor of the posterior fossa in a child. Rosenthal fibers. GFAP+.
Pilocytic astrocytoma. Good prognosis. Benign..
Highly malignant cerebellar tumor in children. Can compress 4th ventricle, causing hydrocephalus. Abundant mitoses, sheets of cells.
Medulloblastoma. Can send drop metastases to spinal cord. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
Tumor of the 4th ventricle in a child; perivascular rosettes and rod-shaped blepharoblasts.
Ependymoma. Poor prognosis.
Benign childhood tumor. Causes bitemporal hemianopsia. Arises in the supracellar region.
Craniopharyngioma. Solid + cystic + calcifications. Derived from remnants of rathke's pouch.
White papillary reflex in a child less than 5
Retinoblastoma. 60% sporadic, 60% familial. Associated with osteosarcoma (Rb mutation--Chromosome 13)