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247 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the primary components of fitness?

Cardiorespiratory capacity
Muscular capacity
What are the 4 benefits of cardio training?
• Decreased resting HR
• Decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
• Improved endurance
• Increased stroke volume & cardiac output
What are the 3 components of muscular capacity?
• Muscular endurance
• Muscular strength
• Muscular power
What are 5 benefits of muscular training?
• Increased strength
• Improved muscular endurance
• Increased basal metabolic rate
• Improved joint strength
• Improved posture
What are 4 benefits of flexibility training?
• Decreased risk of injury
• Improved range of motion
• Improved bodily movements
• Improved posture
What are 4 benefits of improved body composition?
• Decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
• Improved basal metabolic rate
• Improved bodily function
• Improved BMI
What are the 7 secondary components of physical fitness?
Reaction time
Mental capability
What are the 6 essential nutrients?
• Carbohydrates
• Fat
• Protein
• Vitamins
• Minerals
• Water
How many calories in a gram of carbohydrate?
What are the 3 types of fats/lipids?
• Triglycerides (represents 95% of fat we eat)
• Phospholipids
• Sterols
How many calories in a gram of fat?
How many calories in a gram of protein?
What are the two categories of vitamins?
Fat soluble
Water soluble
What is the daily recommended intake of water for both women and men?
Men: 3.7L/day Women: 2.7L/day
What does Bioenergetics mean?
The study of how energy flows in the human body.
Define energy
The ability to do physical work.
Define homeostatis.
A state of stability or balance where all body functions occur easily and the demand for energy is comfortably met by the supply of available energy.
Define metabolism.
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body that either use or create energy.
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

A chemical compound made up of adenosine and three phosphate molecules.

= Adenosine - P ~ P ~ P
Name the two types of anaerobic metabolism.
• Glycolytic system
Name the two types of aerobic metabolism.
Aerobic Glycolysis
Fatty Acid Oxidation
How long does the ATP-CP system provide energy for?
Up to 10 seconds at maximal intensity.
How long does Anaerobic Glycolysis (Glycolitic System) provide energy for?
Up to 2 min. at maximal intensity.
What is the by-product of Anaerobic Glycolysis?
Lactic acid
Which aerobic energy system provides fuel for more than 2 minutes at moderate intensity?
Aerobic Glycolysis
What kind of exercise utilizes fuel during the Fatty Acid Oxidation process?
Low-intensity exercise
How many ATP are given during the ATP-CP process?
Which energy system gives 38 ATP?
Aerobic glycolisis
How many ATP are given during Fatty Acid Oxidation?
Which energy system delivers 2-3 ATP?
Anaerobic glycolisis.
When the aerobic system can no longer give ATP, the anaerobic systems kick in. What is this called?
The Lactate Threshold
What is Oxygen Deficit?
The volume of oxygen missing in the first few minutes of exercise
What does EPOC stand for?
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.

a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity intended to erase the body's "oxygen debt.
Name 3 components of the cardiovascular system?
1. Heart
2. Arteries
3. Veins
__________ take blood away from the heart and ___________ bring blood to the heart.
Arteries – take blood away from the heart.

Veins – bring blood to the heart

Hint: (a)rteries take blood (a)way
What does the cardiovascular system transport throughout the body?
carbon dioxide
metabolic waste products
key chemical messengers (hormones)
Besides transporting blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, metabolic waste products, and hormones throughout the body, what ELSE does the cardiovascular system do?
Maintains the core temperature of the body.
Which side of the heart replaces CO2 with O2?
The right side.
The ______ side of the heart replaces CO2 with O2 and the _______ side disperses it.
The right side of the heart replaces CO2 with O2 and the left side disperses it.
The bottom part of the heart, that's sort of shaped like a heart consists of the left and right _____________.
Define blood pressure, please.
The result of blood being pumped out of the ventricles, exerting force against the arterial walls.
Average blood pressure is supposed to be 120/80. Which is the systolic, and which is the diastolic number?
systolic = 120
diastolic = 80
When the heart contracts, this represents the peak amount of pressure on the arteries. Which type of blood pressure is this?
Diastolic blood pressure is when the heart expands. Is this putting more or less pressure on the arteries?
Give me a "high" reading for blood pressure.
What's an average resting heart rate?
72 BPM
I'm 36. What's my Max HR rate?
Max HR = 220-36 = 184
What's the Max HR formula?
Max HR = 220 - age
Define stroke volume.
The amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects in one beat.
Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle in one beat. Is it the left or the right ventricle?
The left.
Cardiac output is the amount of blood ejected by the heart in one minute.

What's the formula for this?
Q (ml/min) = SV(ml) x HR(bpm)
The typical male has a stroke volume (SV) of 70 ml/beat.

When he's around me his HR increases to 80 BPM.

Please calculate Q (Cardiac Output).
5600 ml/min
What happens to blood pressure during exercise?
• Increase in systolic pressure
• Diastolic remains same or slightly decreases
What are average levels of Q (Cardiac Output):

(a) at rest
(b) in the first few minutes of exercise
(c) during exercise, after homestastis is reached
(a) At rest: 10L/min
(b) During first few minutes: 45L/min
(c) During exercise, after homeostasis: 60L/min
During exercise, blood flow diverts from the _________ ______ to the _______ _________ by ____________.
During exercise, blood flow diverts from the abdominal area to the working muscles by vasodilation.
The Borg Scale is also called the Perceived Rate of Exertion.

The "regular" Borg scale is a series of numbers between ___ and ____.
The "regular" Borg scale is a series of numbers between 6 and 20.
Active Recovery is the act of keeping moving after exercise to assist the heart and circulatory system in redistributing blood to all parts of the body.

What are 2 effects?
• Prevents blood from pooling in the exercising muscles
• Helps cells reduce the oxygen debt created at the beginning of the exercise when oxygen supply did not meet demand
What is a good measure of aerobic fitness?
Aerobic fitness reflects the efficiency of what systems?
Aerobic fitness reflects the efficiency of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and muscular systems.
What are 6 benefits of cardiorespiratory training?
• Increased stroke volume
• Increased blood delivery
• Increased red blood cells (and oxygen carrying capacity)
• Increased capillary density
• Increased size and number of mitochondria (improved aerobic production of ATP)
• Increased aerobic enzymes (enhanced ability to produce O2)
Using the FITT principle, what are the guidelines for cardio training for a beginner?
• Frequency: 1-3 times/week
• Intensity: 55-64% Borg/RPE 9-12
• Time: 15-30 min
• Type: Walking, stationary cycling, swimming, water aerobics
Using the FITT principle, what are the guidelines for cardio training for an intermediate client?
• Frequency: 3-5 times/week
• Intensity: 65-74% Borg/RPE 12-15
• Time: 20-45 min
• Type: Stair mill, treadmill, cycling classes, cross-training
Using the FITT principle, what are the cardio guidelines for an advanced exerciser?
• Frequency: 4-6 times/week
• Intensity: 75-90% Borg/RPE 13-16
• Time: 40-60 min
• Type: cross-training, interval training, sports
How many bones is a baby born with?
A baby is born with 270 bones.
How many bones does an adult have?
An adult has 206 bones.
What are four essential functions of the skeleton?
1. Protect vital organs and soft tissue
2. Factory where red blood cells are produced
3. Serve as reservoir for minerals
4. Provides attachment for muscles to produce movement
What is the Axial Skeleton?
The word "Axial" is taken from the word "axis" and refers to the fact that the bones are located close to or along the central axis of the body.
How many bones does the axial skeleton have?
The axial skeleton has 80 bones.
Name 4 bones of the axial skeleton.
• Skull
• Spine
• Ribs
• Sternum
What is the Appendular Skeleton?
The word appendicular is the adjective of the noun appendage, which itself means a part that is joined to something larger.

Functionally it is involved in locomotion (Lower limbs) of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment (Upper limbs).
How many bones does the appendular skeleton have?
The appendular skeleton has 126 bones.
Name the three major bone groups of the appendular skeleton.
• Shoulders (limb girdle)
• Pelvis (limb girdle)
• Bones in limbs
Name the four classifications of bones.
Long Bones
Short Bones
Flat Bones
Irregular Bones
What are long bones?
Long bones serve as levers for movement.

i.e. humerus, femur
What are short bones?
Short bones give strength to joint, but allow for limited mobility.

i.e. tarsals (ankle) and carpals (wrist)
What are flat bones?
Flat bones provide a broad site for attachment to muscles and serve to protect internal organs.

i.e. ribs, scapulae
What are irregular bones?
Irregular bones protect internal organs and support the body

i.e. ischium,pubis,vertebrae
How are the arms and palms placed in the anatomical position?
• Arms at sides
• Palms facing forward
When it comes to anatomical terminology, ___________ means the front of the body and _______________ means the back of the body.
Anterior = front
Posterior = back
When it comes to anatomical terminology:

_________ is closer to the midline of the body and ____________ is further away from the midline.
Medial = closer to midline
Lateral = away from the midline
Define superior and inferior as they relate to anatomical terminology.
• Superior: a body part above another
• Inferior: a body part below another
When it comes to anatomical terminology:

__________ means face up.
__________ means face down.
Supine means face up.
Prone means face down.
Dorsal is the _________ of the foot, while Plantar means the __________ of the foot.
Dorsal is the top of the foot, while Plantar means the bottom of the foot.
The __________ end of the bone or muscle is closest to the body, while the __________ end of the bone or muscle is furthest from the body.
The proximal end of the bone or muscle is closest to the body, while the distal end of the bone or muscle is furthest from the body.
Name the 3 classes of joints.
Define a fibrous joint, and the kind of movement it permits.
Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing movement.

i.e. skull, pelvis
Define a cartilaginous joint, and the kind of movement it permits.
Cartilaginous joints attach to bones with cartilage and allow little movement.

i.e. spine, ribs
Define a synovial joint, and the kind of movement it permits.
It is a freely moveable joint with cartilage on surface of the bones that join to reduce friction and absorb shock.
Name three types of synovial joints, and give examples.
• Hinge: one direction (elbow, knee)
• Condyloid: two directions (wrist, ankle)
• Ball and socket (shoulder, hip)
When it comes to joint movement terminology:

____________ is bending a joint and ____________ is straightening a joint.
Flexion = bending a joint
Extension = straightening a joint
What is hyperextension?
Hyperextension is movement occurring beyond the normal joint range of motion (ROM).
Which word is synonymous with Abduction?

(a) Protraction
(b) Retraction
Abduction = Protraction
True or False?

When a bone moves away from the midline, it's called Adduction.

When a bone moves towards the midline it's called Adduction.

Abduction is when it moves away. Kind of like "abducting" the bone from the midline, get it?
What movements combine to form Circumduction?
Flexion (bending)
Abduction (moving away)
Extention (straightening)
Adduction (moving towards)
During the movie "The Karate Kid", the master teaches the kid to "wax on" and "wax off".

Wax on = __________ rotation
Wax off = __________ rotation

Wax on = medial rotation (towards midline)
Wax off = lateral rotation (away from midline)

Of course, you may wax on and off in the opposite way, or like me have never waxed a car and really don't give a poop.

Raise your right hand and wax on and off. Each time you bring the hand towards your body say "wax medial", and each time you move your hand away say "wax lateral".

Do this ten times each way. Now you know it.

When it comes to joint movement terminology, supination and pronation refer to movement of which two body parts?
The forearm and the foot.

Supination: palms or bottom of foot up
Pronation: palms or bottom of foot down
Inversion and Eversion refer to movement at the ankle joint.

When the outside of the foot is more off the ground than the inside, which of those terms applies?
When the outside of the foot is more off the ground than the inside, it is referred to "inversion".

In = Inversion = feet slanted "in"

Eversion is the opposite.
When it comes to Joint Movement Terminology:

Shrugging shoulders downwards = __________

Shrugging shoulders upwards = __________
Shrugging shoulders downwards = depression
Shrugging shoulders upwards = elevation
Name the 3 types of muscle.
Where is cardiac muscle found?
Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart, it powers the action that pumps blood throughout the body.
What is the function of smooth muscle?
Smooth muscle surrounds or is part of the internal organs.
Muscles consist of bunches of elongated rod-shaped cells called __________.
Muscles consist of bunches of elongated rod-shaped cells called muscle fibres.
Each muscle fibre is packed full of thinner fibres called _________.
Each muscle fibre is packed full of thinner fibres called myofibrils.
Each _________ is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.
Each myofibril is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.
Each myofibril is composed of a long series of __________.
Each myofibril is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.
Sarcomeres contain two types of protein.

What are they?
Actin & Myosin.

In a relaxed muscle, thick and thin myofilaments are 2cm apart.

In a relaxed muscle, thick and thin myofilaments overlap each other.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (myosin) pull on the thin filaments (actin) to pull the ends of the ___________ together.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (myosin) pull on the thin filaments (actin) to pull the ends of the sarcomere together.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (___?____) pull on the thin filaments (___?____) to pull the ends of the sarcomere together.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (myosin) pull on the thin filaments (actin) to pull the ends of the sarcomere together.

There might be a couple small errors in these flashcards.
True :(

I'm studying last minute guys, but I'm trying my absolute best. There shouldn't be more than one or two though...

If you see an error, contact Kasha at kashmoneyrecords@hotmail.com.

Please name three types of muscle contraction.
The lowering phase of a bicep curl is a great example of a ___________ muscle contraction.

Here's how you can remember: the eccentric contraction is the most effective for stimulating muscle growth.

If you want big guns, you got to be "eccentric" about it and emphasize the eccentric contraction.
Name 2 components of the nervous system.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
- the command centre

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- delivers information about the extremities (the periphery) to the CNS
When it comes to fast twitch and slow twitch muscles, which produces ATP at the fastest rate?
Fast Twitch

Fast twitch muscles produce less force than slow twitch muscles.

Fast twitch muscles produce a greater deal of force, but they fatigue easily.
Fast twitch muscles are categorized into 2A and 2B types. What's the difference?
2B are "faster" than 2A.

2A are used for most sports while 2B are used for really explosive movements like shot put and the 100 meter dash.

Slow twitch muscles work aerobically.

Slow twitch muscles work aerobically while fast twitch muscles work anaerobically.
Prime movers are ________ muscles.

Biceps are antagonist muscles.

Biceps are prime mover muscles (agonists) while the tricep is an antagonist muscle (it reverses the motion).
How many muscles are there in the human body?
Skeletal muscles produce movement by exerting force on _______ which pull on bones.
Skeletal muscles produce movement by exerting force on tendons which pull on bones.
Origin-> where a muscle begins (proximal)

Insertion-> where a muscle ends (distal)

When a muscle contracts it pulls the _______ towards the ______.
When a muscle contracts it pulls the insertion towards the origin.
Name 5 muscles of the torso group.
Rectus Abdominus
Transverse Abdominis (TVA)
External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Erector Spinae
Please name the muscles of the shoulder girdle.
Levator Scapulae
Latissimus Dorsi
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor

If you can't name these, you'll fail.

Just kidding! It's a multiple choice test, just study the main ones from the diagram and you'll be ok.
Name 2 mucles of the elbow joint.
Biceps and Triceps.
Name some muscles of the hip please.
Gluteus Maximus
Gluteus Medius + Minimus
Adductor longus + magnus + brevis
Psoas Major
Name two muscles of the knee group.
Name 3 muscles of the ankle group.
Gastrocnemius (big part of calves)
Soleus (smaller part of calves)
Tibialis Anterior (the front part)
Why do fitness assessments?
• Gives Personal Trainer a clear indication of client’s current health status and actual fitness level (using resting HR and BP)
• Start with baseline information to help improve client’s health and wellness, and to measure future progress
• Fine-tuning exercise prescription
• Determining lifestyle factors that may be counterproductive
• Goal setting and counseling
• Isolating injuries or risk factors
• Help develop a unique, individualized and accurate exercise prescription
• Motivating clients, thus increasing adherence and compliance
Fitness testing should follow the following steps:
o Prescreening
o Body composition
o Light warm-Up
o Cardio-respiratory fitness testing
o Muscular strength and endurance testing
o Flexibility testing

Some of these cards are copied over from the Personal Trainer exam cards.
True. Saving time here, everyone. You may not need to know some of this stuff for your exam, but hey, it's valuable info to have in any case.

It's ok to continue testing if the resting heart rate is above 100 BPM.

72 BPM is average.

During testing, if Systolic Pressure is above 140, it's no big deal.

Systolic must be below 140 to continue testing.

During testing, if Diastolic blood pressure is below 100, you're ok to continue.

Diastolic must be below 100 to continue testing


Systolic must be below 140 to continue testing
What are some preferred methods of stretching?
• Assisted static
• Assisted ROM
• Assisted myofacial release
• Trigger point or ART
Why is cardiorespiratory ability important to fitness?
It is important because it:

- decreases resting heart rate
- decreases risk of cardiovascular disease
- improves endurance
- increases stroke volume
- increases cardiac output
Define the three levels of muscular ability
- muscular strength
- muscular power
- muscular endurance
Define muscular endurance
Ability to apply forces over a long period of time or to complete repeated muscle contractions.
Define muscular strength
The ability to generate force, or the maximum aomount of force that a muscle can exert in a single contraction
Define muscular power
The ability to generate force quickly.
How would you promote the mind body and spirit balance in a fitness class?
- demonstrate positive health behaviours
- advocate rest
- advocate healthy eating
- encourage connection to spirit
What are some psychological benefits of exercise?
- improves self esteem
- helps to combat depression
- assists in stress management
What are the primary components of fitness?
Cardiorespiratory capacity
Muscular capacity
How many minutes per physical activity per day does Canada's Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living recommend?
What are the three components of wellness?
How often should one stretch to improve flexibility?
4-7 days/week
Define FITT
Define Individualization
Exercise routines must accommodate an individuals needs.
Define Specificity
If a participant wants to improve an aspect of their performance, they must train that aspect.
Define Progressive Overload
Participants must continually challenge their fitness in order to improve it.
Define Recovery
Recovery must allow participants to return to the next fitness class at least as fit as the previous workout, if not more fit.
Define Reversibility
Once training ceases, the body will gradually return to a pre-training state.
Define Maintenance
Once a certain level of fitness has been achieved, it is possible to maintain that level with less work than was needed to attain it.
How do you advice participants to eat better?
- Canada's Food Guide
- Portion sizes
- Healthy food choices
- Teach to read labels
- Encourage to consume calories throughout the day
Name the three energy systems, and indicate which require O2 and which produce lactic acid.
1. ATP-CP (Creatine Phosphate) system

- anaerobic

2. Lactic acid/Glycolytic System

- 10-120 seconds of fuel
- anaerobic
- produces lactic acid

3. Aerobic/Oxidative

- uses O2
The glycolytic system breaks down ________ and produces __________.
Breaks down glucose and produces lactic acid, 2ATP + heat
The only energy pathway that can burn carbohydrate, fat and protein is the _______________.
Aerobic Glycolysis via The Krebs Cycle.
What are the benefits of exercising using the aerobic metabolism?
- useful for producing energy for long, continuous, moderate-to-low intensity exercise

- fatty acid oxidation uses a lot of body fat

- fatty acid oxidation is almost unlimited in most individuals
Which energy system provides energy for the first 10 seconds at maximal effort?
ATP-CP Phosphagen System

The production of ATP using the glycolytic pathway is limited because of the accumulation of Creatine phosphate.

The production of ATP using the glycolytic pathway is limited because of the accumulation of lactic acid.
What are the two by-products of aerobic metabolism?
Carbon dioxide & water
What is steady-state exercise?
When supply of O2 meets demand.
How many seconds of effort does the glycolitic system provide fuel for?
120 seconds
What is the lactate threshhold?
The lactate threshold is the point at which the body's aerobic energy system cannot supply enough ATP to meet the energy demands placed on it.

Depends on client fitness levels, and increases as the client becomes more fit.
What makes up the cardiorespiratory system?
The cardiorespiratory system is composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory system. They work together to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove wastes from body tissues.

The respiratory sytem adds oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the blood.

The circulatory system transports these substances and nutrients to and from body tissues.
Define artery
A blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Define vein
A blood vessel that carries O2-deficient blood towards the heart.
Explain the anatomy of the lungs
The left and right lungs form a system that exchanges gas between the bloodstream and the environment.

The exchange of gases occurs as a result of ventilation and diffusion.

Inhaled air enters the primary bronchi which branch into bronchioles (think of a tree). The bronchiles have tiny air sacs called alveoli at their ends. O2 and CO2 are exchanged here.
How often should cardiorespiratory training occur to achieve health improvements?
According to the book, people can improve their cardiorespiratory fitness by doing two exercise sessions a week.
What are the two best ways to measure exercise intensity?
(1) % of Maximum HR

Target HR = (220-age) x %

(2) RPE: Borg (6-20) or a simple 1-10 scale
What are three types of synovial joints?
Hinge: one direction, i.e. elbow

Condyloid: two directions, i.e. wrist

Ball and socket: three directions, i.e. shoulder, hip
List 4 classifications of bones and give one example of each classification.
Long: Levers for movement, i.e. femur

Short: Give strength to joints, limited mobility, i.e. tarsals (ankle), carpals (wrist)

Flat: Provide broad site for muscle attachement, protect internal organs i.e. ribs, scapulae, pelvis

Irregular: protect internal organs, support body, i.e. Ischium, pubis, vertibrae
List 3 classifications of joints and give an example of each classification.
Joints are the place where bones meet.

Fibrous: Connect bones without allowing any movement, i.e. skull, pelvis.

Cartilaginous: Cartilaginous joints are held together by, you guessed it, cartilage and allow a bit of movement, i.e. spine/ribs

Synovial: Where the action happens. These joints have cartilage along the surface of the bones, enclosed by a capsule that holds synovial fluid that keeps things nice and smooth. i.e. elbow, wrist, shoulder.
What is the anatomical name for the shoulder blade?
What is the anatomical name for the forearm?
What is the anatomical name for the shinbone?
What is the anatomical name for the kneecap?
What is the anatomical name for the thighbone?
What type of joint is the hip?
Ball and socket (synovial)
What type of joint is the knee?
What type of joint is the shoulder?
Ball and socket (synovial)
What are the essential functions of the skeleton?
- protect vital organs and soft tissue

- provide attachment site for muscles to produce movement

- serve as a factory where red blood cells are produced

- serve as a reservoir for minerals
What is the axial skeleton?
The axial skeleton consists of the bones along the axis of the body - skull, spine, ribs and sternum = 80 bones.
Define proximal and distal.
Proximal = end of bone closest to body

Distal = end of bone farthest from body
Define posterior and anterior.
Posterior = back of the body

Anterior = front of the body
Define dorsal and plantar.
Dorsal = top of the foot

Plantar = bottom of the foot
Define medial and lateral.
Medial = close to the midline of the body

Lateral = away from teh midline of the body
What is the appendular skeleton?
The appendular skeleton consists of all the bones of the appendages and their related limb girdles, i.e. shoulders, pelvis = 126 bones
How many muscles are in the human body?
What is the smallest functional unit of a muscle called?
What is the primary function of the biceps?
Elbow flexion

Supination of forearm
What is the primary function of the deltoids?

External rotation

Assists in flextion, extention, horizontal abduction
What is the primary function of the pectoralis major?
Flexion, adduction, medial rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion
What is the primary function of the rectus abdominus?
Spinal flexion, posterior pelvic tilt
What is the primary function of the latissimus dorsi?
Extension, adduction, medial rotation
What is the primary function of the erector spinae?
Spinal extension
What is the primary function of the gluteus maximus?
Hip extension
What is the primary function of the hamstrings?
Hip extension
What is the FITT design for flexibility?
Frequency: 4-7 days per week
Intensity: To the point of slight tension without pain
Time: 5-10 minutes, 20-30 seconds per stretch
Type: Static/Dynamic
What is the purpose of the flexibility/relaxation component of the class?
- reduces stress
- releases tension
- assists with posture
- reduces risk of injury
- improves performance of everyday activities and sports
Name three types of muscle
Smooth: Surrounds or is part of internal organs

Cardiac: Muscle of the heart

Skeletal: Responsible for voluntary bodily movements
Define isotonic/concentric
Movement that occurs when the muscle contracts with enough force to shorten, i.e. lifting phase of a biceps curl
Define Isotonic/eccentric
Muscle generates tension but as it exerts force it lengthens, i.e. lowering phase of a biceps curl
Define Isometric
Muscle exerts force to counteract an opposing force; no change in muscle length occurs, i.e. activating your abs and bracing for a punch
Define the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Composed of brain and spinal cord, and enclosed by skull and spinal column.

The "control centre".
Define the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Made up of the peripheral nerves in the extremities, responsible for transporting signals to and from the CNS.
What is the purpose of the PAR-Q form?
The PAR-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) is used as an initial screening tool before individuals begin an exercise program.
What does pre-exercise screening help identify?
Known disease and signs and symptoms of a disease.
List four factors that would contribute to an increased cardiac risk.
- men over the age of 45 & women over the age of 55

- family history of heart disease

- smoking

- high blood pressure

- high cholesterol levels

- diabetes

- sedentary lifestyle
What does RICE represent in terms of treating acute injuries?

R: Rest - discontinue activity

I: Ice - applying ice reduces inflammation, swelling and pain

C: Compression - prevents swelling

E: Elevation - elevating injured tissue above heart helps to minimize swelling
What are ways a Fitness Instructor Specialist can employ to encourage participants to prevent injury?
- emphasize perfect technique

- cue and coach participants who may be performing exercise incorrectly

- ensure that you model perfect technique

- include proper warm-up and cool-down

- ensure safety of exercise equipment
What is the difference between a chronic/overuse injury and an acute injury?
An acute injury results from a single force or load leading to immediate damage.

A chronic/overuse injury results from repetitive loading, leading to gradual onset of pain and dysfunction over several days or weeks.
What's the difference between a sign and a symptom?
A sign describes how an injury looks while a symptom describes how it feels.


Signs: redness, swelling, bruising

Symptoms: pain, stiffness, spasms
Describe signs and symptoms of an overuse injury. Put the signs and symptoms into separate lists.
Symptoms: low-grade discomfort, stiffness, progression of pain intensity.

Signs: alteration of biomechanics (walking different), swelling, tenderness to touch
In terms of injury:

Bones ___________

Ligaments _____________

Muscles _____________
Bones: fracture

Ligaments: sprain

Muscles: strain

Tendons: rupture
Define mechanical and systemic pain.
Mechanical pain: the result of damage to the musculoskeletal system, i.e. twisting an ankle

Systemic pain: the result of a disease, arthritis, heart disease
Describe signs and symptoms of an acute injury. Put the signs and symptoms into separate lists.
Symptoms: immediate pain, loss of mobility, stiffness, spasms

Signs: redness, bruises, swelling
How can a Fitness Instructor Specialist help prevent overuse injuries in participants?
- educate participants on consequences of exercising through pain

- educate participants that exercising a muscle or joint in pain will make it worse

- create environment where participants are under no pressure to exercise with pain

- ask participants to report any issues at beginning of class

- ensure everyone complete a PAR-Q

- ensure all equipment is in good condition

- teach a multi-level class with multiple variations

- make sure everyone is performing the exercises correctly and effectively

- provide coaching and safety/correctional cues as necessary
Name 3 common special populations and list some special considerations for them.
(1) Pre and Post Natal

- regular exercise at maintenance level is recommended

- avoid introducing new activities

- avoid high-impact activities that can put stress on joints and soft tissues

- begin and end all exercise sessions with a gradual and progressive warm-up and recovery

- Using the RPE (Borg scale) ensure they remain within 12-14 range

- modify supine and prone activities after the first trimester

- consult with doctors should any unusual symptoms present themselves

- instructor should provide modifications that minimize directional changes as pregnant participants may lose balance more easily

- promote and encourage participants to listen to their bodies

(2) Older Adults

- need longer warm up

- intensity of cardiovascular component should progress gradually

- participants with heart conditions should obtain medical clearance

- emphasize posture, alignment and proper technique

- recommend 2-4 times/week + 12 reps/exercise strength training

- encourage flexibility training

- encourage them to exercise at their own pace

- include exercises for coordination, balance and stability

- recommend regular checkups with doctor

- include all elements of mind/body/spirit in class

(3) New Exercisers

- be sure to give clear description of the class so participants know what to expect

- advise everyone to choose the options that best suit them and their fitness level

- offer lots of options

- perform options with the newcomers while encouraging advanced participants

Options: Level 1: lower body / Level 2: lower body + upper body / Level 3: addition of directional or high-impact options
List three reasons for why you would encourage a regular participant to continue to exercise through pregnancy.
- improved aerobic/muscular fitness

- appropriate weight gain

- facilitation of labour
How does exercise help reduce the effects of aging?
- continued independent living
- more energy
- better circulation
- increased production of growth hormones
- increased metabolism
When a new member comes to your fitness class, how do you make him or her feel welcome and comfortable?
- arrive 15 minutes earlier so you can interact with participants

- ask them about their history

- give lots of options

- encouragement
What is the contemporary model for a group fitness class?

Cardio / Muscle (start with either one)

Cardio: Pre cardio, cardio, cardio recovery

Muscle: strength, endurance, performance

List format and timeframes for each component of a traditional 60-minute class.
Warm-up: 10-12 minutes

Cardio: 20-35 minutes

Muscle conditioning: 5-20 minutes

Flexibility/relaxation: 5-10 minutes
What are four qualities of sound program design?

What are the phases of a warm-up?
General warm-up: dynamic, integrated movements using large muscles and large ranges of motion

Specific warm-up: employs similar movements and biomechanics to those intended for subsequent and more strenuous activity later on
What are the phases of cardio training?
Pre-cardio - 55-65% HR Max
Cardio - 65-85% HR Max
Cardio recovery
List benefits of the warm-up component.
- increased muscle recruitment and response

- reduced incidence of injury

- facilitated oxygen utilization

- enhanced nerve transmission

- improved muscle metabolism

- increased blood flow

- progressive elevation of heart rate

- mental preparation

- basic movement patterning
List 4 benefits of the cardio component.
- improves cardiovascular strength, power and endurance

- develops anaerobic and aerobic energy systems

- reduces risk of cardiovascular disease

- decreases resting HR

- reduces stress
List 4 benefits of the muscle conditioning component.
- improved muscle function and joint stability

- reduced risk of osteoporosis

- improved body composition

- increased core stability

- reduced risk skeletal infjry

improved self-esteem, body image, attitude and confidence
What are the primary functions of the warm-up?
- movement rehearsal:
allows participants to rehearse the activity or skill required in the workout phase of the class

- elevated body temperature
improves muscle tissue elasticity, lubrication of joint structures, incrased blood flow to working tissue

- systemic excitation
gets body ready for workout: increased heart rate, stroke volume, respiratory rate, glucose uptake, metabolic reaction and O2 availabitlity

- functional preparation
What are the primary functions of the cardio component?
1. develop aerobic capacity and endurance

2. systems integration - involving the heart and its ability to distribute blood and oxygen, and the muscles and their ability to extract and use oxygen in the production of aerobic energy

3. Movement mastery: learning movements through choreographed movement patterns
What are the primary functions of the muscle conditioning component?
1. Muscular strength

Ability to produce a maximum amount of force in a single effort.

2. Muscular endurance

Ability to perform repetitive contractions with minimal fatigue

3. Functional performance

Training the body to respond to real-life everyday situations with ease and efficiency.
What are some benefits of the cool-down?
- release of physical and mental tension associated with the workout

- facilitates physical, mental and emotional equilibrium

- provides opportunity for flexibility training

- enhances relaxation response
What are the primary functions of the final cool-down?
- peform flexibility training
- integration of workout benefits
- relaxation
What are the phases of the final cool-down?
(1) Transition (1-2 minutes)
(2) Flexibility Training (3-4 minutes)
(3) Relaxation (1-2 minutes)
How long should the cardio component increase the target HR between 65-85% HRMax?
20-30 minutes
What are the three elements of choreographed movement patterns?
1. Balance: integrating variety to ensure adequate intensity, optimal safety and performance success

i.e. intensity, safety, integrity

2. Variation: tools used to achieve physiological, biomechanical and psychological balance in movement pattern development

i.e. range of motion, level, plane, direction

3. Movement Progression
How to construct movement patterns, teaching formulas
What are three types of balance to consider when planning movement patterns?
(1) Physiological Balance
--> how intense the movements are

(2) Biomechanical Balance
---> how safe the movements are, the variance of planes, and the stresses placed on the body

(3) Psychosomatic Balance (Integrity)
---> incorporating how the participants learn the movements and master them
Name some elements of variation.
- range of motion
- lever
- plane
- direction
- rhythm
- momentum
- symmetry
- mode (high impact, low impact)
- learning curve (timeframe to learn movement)
Name some teaching formulas.
- linear movement (teach a, b, c, d etc.)
- pyramid
- reverse pyramic
- pure repetition
- linking
- add-on
- add and subtract
- insertion
- layering
- holding pattern
Name some types of cueing.
Anatomical cues (knee up)

Directional cues (right grapevine)

Kinesthetic cues (imagine holding a pencil between your shoulder blades)

Explanatory cues (goal is to focus on free-flowing movements)

Adjustment cues (avoid rounding your back)

Action cues (contract your deep abdominal muscles)

Mental stimulation cues (Allow your breathing to be continuous, like waves in the ocean)

Motivational cues (excellent intensity on those power moves)

Encouragement cues (Congratulations on a great job today)
What does V.A.K. stand for?
Visual: cueing through face and body expression

Auditory: Verbal cues

Kinesthetic: Instruct participants on how they should feel.
List some qualities of an effective leader.
One who inspires others, clearly communicate their vision and is confident, motivating and attentive.
Learning occurs in which three behavioural domains?
1. Cognitive
-refers to intellectual activities and involves knowledge

2. Affective
- describes emotional learning

3. Motor
- development of movement and motor skills
What are three stages in learning motor skills?
1. Cognitive
- poor skill level

2. Associative
- mastery of basic skills

3. Autonomous
- confident skill elvel
What are the stages of behaviour change?
1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance