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53 Cards in this Set

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Red Algae


Red due to accessory pigment phycoerythrin

Usually multicellular; largest seaweed

Green Algae


Named 4 grass-green chloroplasts

2 main groups: charaophytes & chlorophytes; charoaphytes more closely related to plants

supergroup: Unikonta

includes animals, fungi, some protists

includes two clades: amoebozoans; opisthokonts(animals, fungi, & related protists)



Include slime molds, tubulinids, entamoebas

Slime molds

clade: Amoebozoans

Supergroup: Unikonta


2 branches: plasmodial slime molds (diploid organism)

Cellular Slime mold (haploid organism)

Examples of Beneficial Prokaryotes in Human Body

Intestine- provide important nutrients

Mouth- prevent harmful from growing there

Decomposers- return nutrients back to enviroment

Prokaryotes: General Features

Most unicellular

No membrane-bound organelles

No nucleus

Basic Shapes: cocci (spheres)

bacilli (rods)


Prokaryotes: Cell Wall Function

maintains cell shape

affords physical protections

prevents bursting in hypotonic environment (will plasmolyze(protsplasm shrinks) in hypertonic solutions

Prokaryotes: Cell Wall Structure

peptidoglycan based

sugars x-linked w/polypeptides

used to identify bacteria w/ Gram Stain procedure

Archaean: Cell Walls Structure

Contain polysaccharides & proteins

Lack peptidoglycan

Gram Negative bacteria

red/pink color due

thin peptidoglycan cell walls

more pathogenic

endotoxins ex. lipopolysaccharide

greater resistance to antibiotics

Gram positive bacteria


think peptidoglycan cell wall


Prokaryotes: Capsule

Sticky protective outer layer- capsule if dense; slime layer if not

Enable adherence to surfaces/other organisms to form a colony

Protect against dehydration/host's immune system

Prokaryotes: fimbriae

hair-like appendages

use to stick to substrate or to one another

Prokaryotes: Bacteria: Endospore

Resistant stores

Dormant until favorable conditions

Can withstand boiling water

Prokaryotes: Motility

Flagella action (most common)

Corkscrew motion (spirochetes)

Secrete slimy threads

Prokaryotes: Taxis

Taxis-directional movement

Heterogeneous environment



Prokayotes: General Features Pt 2

Most have cell wall

Plasmids- additional rings of DNA

Singular, circular DNA strand

Prokaryotes: Antibiotics

erythromycin & tetracycline- bind to prokaryotic ribosomes and block protein synthesis

penicillin: inhibits x-link formation; interferes w/ cell wall structure

Prokaryotes: Reproduction

asexual reproduction: binary fission

Prokaryotes: Bacteria: Genetic Variation

Mutation- short generation times & large population; favorable mutations can propagate rapidly

Prokaryotes: Horizontal Gene Transfer

Brings together DNA from individuals of diff species; facilitates rapid evolution

Prokaryotes: Acquiring Genes

Transformation- cell takes up genes from environment

Transduction- bacteriophages transfer genes from 1 prokaryote to another

Conjugation- direct transfer of genes from 1 prokaryote to another; aka bacteria sex

Prokaryotes: energy& carbon use: 4 categories

Phototroph- use light energy

Chemotroph- energy from chemicals in environment

Autotroph- need only CO2(inorganic)

Heterotroph- require @ least one organic nutrient

Prokaryotes: 4 Major Nutrition Modes

Photoautotrophs- Photosynthetic; light to make organic compounds from CO2 (plants/algae)

Chemoautotrophs- Need only CO2; but oxidize inorganic 4 energy (H2S, NH3, Iron II)

Photoheterotrophs- Use light 4 energy, obtain C in organic form

Chemoheterotrophs- Eat organic compounds 4 energy& carbon (protists, fungi& animals, some parasitic plants)

Prokaryotes: Metabolic Relationship to O2

Obligate aerobes- use O2 for cell respiration; no growth w/o it

Obligate anaerobes- poisoned by O2; use fermentation or anaerobic respiration

Facultative anaerobes- use O2 if present but can grow aerobically

Prokaryotes: Nitrogen Metabolism

Able to metabolize most N compounds

Nitrogen fixation- convert N2 to NH3

Only biomechanism that makes atmospheric N2 available to organisms

Prokaryotes: Metabolic Cooperation

Allows them to use environmental resources they couldn't use as individual cells

ex. Anabaena- photosynthesis/N fixation occur in diff cells within colony

Prokaryotes: Metabolic Cooperation: Biofilms

surface coatings where MC could occur

MC occurs regardless of species or domain

ex. sulfate consuming bacteria and methane-consuming archaea

Prokaryotes: Bacteria: 5 Major Taxis Pt 1

Proteobacteria (Gram-negative)

Clamydias urethritis- most common STD in US

Spirochetes- syphilis, Lyme disease

Prokaryotes: Bacteria: 5 Major Taxis Pt 2

Cyanobacteria- only prokaryotes w/ plantlike oxygenic photosynthesis

Gram-positive bacteria

Actinomycetes- tuberculosis, leprosy

Streptomyces- antibiotics (stremtomycin)

Spore formers such as Bacillus anthracis & Clostridium btolinum

Prokaryotes: Archaea: 4 Major Clasdes


Euryarchaeota-methanogens/halophiles; some Theromophiles

Crenarchaeota- most thermophiles


Prokaryotes: Archaea: Environmental Criteria

Extreme- Thermophiles: Thrive in hot places 60 degrees Celsius+

Extreme Halophiles: Live in high-salt places; Great Salt Lakes, Dead Sea

Methanogens- obtain energy by using CO2 to oxidize H2 to CH4; strict anaerobes poisoned by O2

Prokaryotes: Ecological Impact

Decomposers- "Unlock" organic 'cules of corpses/waste products

Return inorganic environmental components to the air

Prokaryotes: Ecological Impact Pt 2

Cyanobacteria produce atmospheric O2

Bacteria/Archaea- important in nitrification

Only organisms that metabolize non-organic 'cules: iron, sulfer, nitrogen & hydrogen


ecological relationship btwn organisms of diff species that are in direct contact

Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism: both benefit

Commensalism: 1 receives benefits while neither harming/helping other

Parasitism: 1 benefits @ expense of host

Pathogenic Prokaryotes

cause 1/2 of all human disease

some opportunistic: ex. Sreptococcus pneumonia- live in throats of healthy ppl; cause pneumonia when defenses down

Pathogenic Prokaryotes: How do they Cause Disease

Tissue invasion

Produce poisons- endotoxins: lipopolysaccharide components of outer membrane

exotoxins- secreted

Prokaryotes: Research/Technological Use

Bioremediation: use of organisms to remove pollutants from water, air, & soil

Treat sewage

Used to decompose petroleum compounds- pesticides, oil spills, radioactive wastes

Metabolic factories for commercial productions

Fungi: Basic Characteristics


Heterotrophs- acquire nutrients by absorption

Exoenzymes- digest food body by secreting powerful hydrolytic enzymes

Fungi: Function As

Decomposers: absorb nutrients from non-living organic material

Parasites: absorb nutrients from hosts cells

Mutualistic Symbionts: absorb nutrients from host but reciprocate

Fungi: Structure: Hyphae

tiny filaments

not present in yeasts & microsporidia

hyphae form interwoven mat= mycelium

Mycelia can be huge (maximizes surface area)

Fungi: Structure: Septa & Chitin

Septa: hyphae divided into cells

Cell walls: chitin- based

Fungi: Structure: Aseptate

asptate- hyphae not divided

coenocytic fungi- continuous cytoplasmic mass w/ 100s or 1000s of nuclei

Fungi: Parasitic

haustoria- absorbing hyphal tips that penetrate host tissue

Fungi: Reproduction

Release spores produced sexually or asexually

Fungi: Reproduction: Sexual Life Cycle

1. plasmogamy: fusion of 2 parents cytoplasms

2. karyogamy: fusion of haploid cell

stages can be separated by hrs to centuries

Meiosis restores haploid condition b4 spores produced; heterokaryon- mycelium @ interim

Fungi: Origins

Evolved from aquatic, unicellular flagellated protist like animals

DNA data- part of clade: opisthokonts 'long wit animals/ protisan relatives: nuclearids

Multicellularity evolved in animals/fungi independently

Fungi: Sexual Life Cycle: Haploid/Diploid

Nuclei of fungal hyphae & spores of most species are haploid, cept 4 transient diploid stage

Heterokaryon: mycelia w/ fusion of 2 hyphae w/ genetically different nuclei

Fungi: 5 Major Phyla

1. Chytridomycota

2. Zygomycota

3. Glomeromycota



Fungi: Phylum Chytridomycota

Form zoospores: uniflagellated spores

Most primitive

Fungi: Phylum Zygomycota

Zygote fungi: form resistant structures during sexual reproduction

Asexual phase: bulbous black sporangia develop at tips of upright hyphae

Mycorrhizae- mutualistic association w/ plant roots; 1 group forms em