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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How originally were elements arranged?

There was no understanding of protons, electrons or atomic structure

So elements were categorised on their physical properties, chemical properties and relative atomic masses

What was Newland's octaves?

He noticed that every 8th element had similar properties

However the third row didn't work out as he didn't leave any gaps for new elements

Why was Newland's work criticised?

Not all the groups had similar properties - there were anomalies

He mixed up metals and non-metals

He didn't leave gaps for future elements to be discovered

What did Dmitri Mendeleev do?

He put the elements in order of atomic mass

However he left gaps for future elements in order to keep the properties in groups

Therefore he could predict the properties of the undiscovered elements and where they would fit

What did scientists think of the periodic table?

At first they weren't very impressed by it

However soon newly discovered elements fitted into the gaps

After more evidence scientists realised it could be a useful tool to predict elements properties

How is the modern periodic table formulated?

When elements, protons and neutrons where discovered elements were ordered in atomic no.

Electrons in an atom are set in shells

Group - number of electrons in outer shell

Periods- number of electron shells

Why do group 7 metals decrease in reactivity and group 1 metals increase in reactivity as you go down the group?

The + nucleus attracts the - electrons

The more shells the further from the nucleus the outer electron is so the less attraction

The more shells the more shielding so the less attraction from the nucleus to the electron

This means that in group one it gets more reactive down the group (easily lose an electron)

In group 7 - less easily gain an electron

What are the alkali metals?

These are the group 1 metals

They all have one outer shell electron so they are very reactive as they want to lose this electron

They form ionic compounds with non-metals so gain a full outer shell (by losing 1 electron)

Produce white compounds that dissolve in water to form colourless solutions

How do alkali metals react with water?

They react vigorously and produce hydrogen

They form hydroxides which dissolve in water to give alkaline solutions

This therefore, would change the indicator colour to purple

What are the trends going down the halogens?

* Halogens are group 7 electrons

They become less reactive

They have a higher melting and higher boiling point

What coloured vapours are the halogens?

Fluorine - yellow gas

Chlorine - green gas

Bromine - red-brown gas

Iodine - Purple gas

What is a halide ion?

Halogens form ionic bonds with metals

They form -1 charged ions

These ions are called halides

They exist as diatonic molecules (in pairs)

How do halogens displace?

A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt


Cl2 (g) + 2KI (aq) ---> I2 (aq) + 2KCl (aq)

What are the transition metals?

They ate typical metals found between group 2 and group 3 in the centre of the periodic table

They are good conductors of heat + electricity

They are very dense, strong and shiny

They are less reactive than group 1 metals

They have higher melting points than G1 metals

They often have more than 1 type of ion which can form different coloured compounds

Why are transition metal compounds coloured?

The transition metal ion they contain results in different colours

EG. Copper sulphate is blue

These can be used in gemstones, pottery glazes

What are other uses of transition metals?

They are good as catalysts

Iron - used in the haber process

Manganese oxide- decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

Nickel - Hydrogenation

What is hard water?

Water with high concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions

They are harder to lather with soap

However the calcium ions are good for healthy teeth and bones and hard water could reduce the risk of developing heart disease

What are the problems with hard water?

When heated they form scale as the calcium hydrocarbon ate in temporary hard water thermally decomposes to form calcium carbonate

This blocks pipes and reduces heating efficiency

With soap scum is also formed - less lather used

What are the two types of hard water?

Temporary = caused by hydrogen carbonate ions

Permanent caused by dissolved calcium sulphate

How is temporary hardness removed?

This can be removed by eating as scale is formed and this can then be removed separately

How can both types of hard water be removed?

Washing soda can be added (sodium carbonate) as this forms an insoluble precipitate removing the calcium and magnesium ions

Ion exchange column can be used which replace the calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions ( sodium ions often need to be replaced)

What are the stages of water treatment?

Water is collected from rivers and rainfall and collected in reservoirs

The water passes through grills to remove big objects and sticks

Chemical coagulants are added to clump the particles together

They are then removed through gravel filters

Water is chlorinated to kill of harmful microbes

What further treatments do people do to their water?

People buy filters using carbon or silver

The carbon is supposed to remove the chlorine taste and the silver is used as an antibacterial

Some people also use ion resin columns (hard)

What are the positives of water companies adding chlorine and fluoride?

F- Can help to reduce tooth decay

C - Prevents disease by killing microbes

What are the negatives of water companies adding chlorine and fluorine?

C - Increase in certain cancers?

- Toxic by-products could cause cancer?

F- Could cause cancer and bone problems?

People believe that the consumer should have a choice of whether to have it added

What is a reversible reaction?

A reaction in which the products of the reaction can react themselves to produce the original reactants and this occurs constantly

A +B --->

<-- C + D

What is equilibrium?

In a closed system equilibrium will always be reached

This is when the amount of reactants and products will reach a balance and remain there

The reactions still occur just at the same rate so nothing changes

How does temperature affect equilibrium?

If you raise the temperature the endothermic reaction will increase to use up the heat

If you lower the temperature the exothermic reaction will increase to give out more heat

How does pressure affect equilibrium?

If you raise the pressure the reaction is favoured with the less gas molecules (less volume)

If you lower the pressure the reaction is favoured with the more gas molecules

How does adding a catalyst affect the equilibrium position?

It doesn't as both the forward and backward reaction will be increased by the same amount

The only change is that the reaction will reach equilibrium faster than without a catalyst

Where do nitrogen and hydrogen come from to make ammonia?

Nitrogen comes from the air (78%)

Hydrogen comes from either natural gas or other sources such as crude oil

What are the conditions for the Haber process?

It is a reversible reaction

200 Atmospheres ( favours forward reaction)

450 degrees

This is a compromise as although it favours the backwards reaction it gives a better rate of reaction than a lower temperature would

Nickel catalyst

What are the end steps of the Haber process?

Tha Ammonia is cooled and liquified and removed as a liquid

The unused nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled back to be used again

What is the general formula of an alcohol?

Their functional group is OH

The general formula is CnH2n+1OH

To show an alcohol you must separate it with the OH at the end to show it properly

What are the properties of alcohols?

For the first three alcohols...

They are flammable and burn in air to produce carbon dioxide and water

They dissolve in water to form neutral solutions

They act with sodium to give hydrogen and an alkoxide

How are alcohols used as solvents?

They can dissolve most compounds that water dissolves, and more such as (hydrocarbons, oils and fats)

They can be used for perfumes, aftershaves, cleaning brushes.

How are alcohols used as fuels?

They can be used as spirit burners as they burn cleanly and don't smell

They are also a renewable resource

Sugar cane can be used to form ethanol therefore it would be carbon neutral

What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?

Their functional group is COOH

Their names end in " anoic acid "



- C



How do carboxylic acids react?

They react with carbonates to form CO2

The salts formed by this end in "anoate"

They dissolve in water to form acidic solutions as when they dissolve they ionise to release H+ ions

What are the differences between strong and weak acids?

Strong acids - All the H+ ions fully ionise in solution so they have a low pH

Weak acids - Not all their H+ ions fully ionise fully in solution so they have a high pH

What are some of the uses of carboxylic acids?

Ethanoic acid can be made from oxidising ethanol ( leaving wine out )

Ethanoic acid can be dissolved in water to make vinegar

Citric acid can be used in fizzy drinks and to remove scale

Longer chain- used for soaps and detergents

Can be used in the production of esters

What is the functional group of an ester?

They have the functional group COO

They are formed from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid

An acid catalyst is used (e.g. conc. sulphuric acid)

How are the names of esters formed?

The first bit is from the alcohol and ends in yl

e.g. ethanol -----> ethyl

The second bit is from the acid and ends in annoate

eg Propanoic acid ----> propanoate

What are the properties of esters?

They have pleasant smells

They are volatile

They are flammable so can be very dangerous

They don't mix well with water

They don't mix well with alcohols or other solvents

What are the uses of esters?

They are used in perfumes

Used for flavourings and aromas

They can be used in ointments

They can be used as solvents for paint or ink

What are the problems with esters?

Whaling their fumes can irritate mucous membranes in the nose and mouth

They are heavier than air and very flammable

They can be toxic in high doses

Dangerous as synthetic food additives

What is a mole?

The amount of substance in the restive atomic or formula mass of a substance in grams

What is concentration?

The amount of moles or grams per dm cubed

The more solute dissolved in a given volume the higher the concentrated


= ------------


How is a titration used?

This can be used to work out concentration by finding out how much acid is needed to neutralise an alkali

Phenolphalein indicator can be used as it has a sharp colour change

Pink : alkali Colourless : acids

How can energy transfer of a chemical reaction be measured?

By taking the temperature and placing the reaction in a polystyrene cup and measuring the temperature change

A draft excluder and lid can reduce energy being lost

What is an exothermic reaction?

= One which gives out energy to the surroundings

The temperature of the surroundings increases

E.G. fuel burning and neutralisation reaction

What is an endothermic reaction?

One in which energy is taken in from the surroundings

The temperature of the surroundings decreases

E.G. Photosynthesis

What happens in all chemical reactions?

Old bonds are broken and new bonds are made

Energy must be supplied to break bonds

Energy is always released when bonds are formed

Breaking bonds - endothermic

Making bonds - endothermic

Describe the energy changes in an endothermic reaction?

The energy required to break bonds is greater than the energy released when new bonds are formed

The overall energy change therefore is +

The products are higher than the reactants (in a graph)

Describe the energy changes in an exothermic reaction?

The energy released in bond making is greater than the energy used in bond breaking

The overall energy change therefore is -

On a graph the reactants are higher than the products

How can fuel energy be measured?

A calorimeter can be used by using a metal container and measuring time to heat water to a certain temperature

This can be calculated by looking at the mass of fuel burnt and temperature change

What is the equation for energy transferred?

Q = water mass X SHC of water X temp change

J = grams X J X degrees

What are the consequences of burning fuels?

They can release CO2 - a green house gas

This therefore can cause global warming

Developing alternative sources costs money

Common fuels are running out therefore the prices of these fuels increase

What is activation energy?

The minimum amount of energy needed by reactant particles to break their bonds

What does a catalyst do to a reaction ( bond energies)?

It provides an alternative pathway for the reaction with a lower activation energy

Therefore on a bond energy diagram with a catalyst the reaction will have a lower curve however the overall energy change for the reaction will stay the same (start and end in same places)

How can the overall energy change for a reaction be calculated?

You can read it of an energy level diagram

Or you can subtract the bond making from the bond breaking and then indicate through the positive or negative sign whether it is exo or endo thermic

How can hydrogen be used as a fuel?

If hydrogen gas is reacted with oxygen it produces water as an exothermic reaction

This can be used in combustion engines

It is a very clean fuel

However you need a special engine, it is hard to store and you still need energy to make it ( which comes from burning fossil fuels)

How does a fuel cell use oxygen?

It is an electrical cell which is supplied with fuel and oxygen and uses energy from the reaction to generate electricity

Hydrogen can be used as this fuel

Unlike a battery cell they don't need recharging

What are the positives of hydrogen fuel for cars?

There are no pollutants produced

Help countries become less dependent on crude oil which is non-renewable

What are the negatives of hydrogen fuel in cars?

It is a gas so takes up lots of space to store

It is explosive so is hard to store safely

It is often made from hydrocarbons ( from fossil fuels) or by electrolysis of water which uses electricity which is generated from fossil fuels

What is the flame test?

It is when a sterilised piece of nichrome wire is put into a bunsen burner flame with a sample of a compound on it and it creates a coloured flame to indicate which metal ions are present

What metal ions are indicated by the flame test?

Lithium - Crimson

Sodium- yellow

Potassium - lilac

Calcium - red

Barium - green

How can sodium hydroxide be used to identify other metal ions?

If you add sodium hydroxide solution to some compounds a coloured insoluble hydroxide is formed indicating a particular metal present

What metal ions are indicated by adding sodium hydroxide?

Calcium - White precipitate

Copper - Blue precipitate

Iron 2 - Green precipitate

Iron 3 - Brown precipitate

Aluminium - White precipitate

Magnesium - White precipitate

How can you tell the different between calcium, aluminium and magnesium ions?

Aluminium's white precipitate dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide

The other two don't dissolved in excess

Then calcium can be put in the flame test and will go red whereas magnesium won't

How can you test for carbonates?

You can react the sample with acid

You can then test if the gas is carbon dioxide by bubbling it through limewater and if it is carbon dioxide the limewater will go cloudy

If carbon dioxide is produced it is a carbonate


How can you test for halide ions?

Add dilute nitric acid

Then add silver nitrate solution

Chlorine - white precipitate

Bromide - cream precipitate

Iodide - yellow precipitate

How can you test for sulphate ions?

Add dilute hydrochloric acid

Then add barium chloride solution

A white precipitate being formed indicates sulphate was present