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41 Cards in this Set

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What does quantative analysis mean?

Used to determine how much substance is present.

What does qualitative analysis mean?

Identifies if a substance is present

Why must an experiment to test for an anion be unique?

So that you can determine which anion is present.

What is the test for cations using sodium hydroxide?

Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide containing ions.

Cu2+ with sodium hydroxide turns the precipitate....

Blue ---- blue

Cu2+ with sodium hydroxide turns the precipitate....

Blue ---- blue

Fe2+ with sodium hydroxide makes the precipitate colour....

Colourless ---- green

Fe3+ with sodium hydroxide turns the precipitate...

Yellow ---- orange

Fe3+ with sodium hydroxide turns the precipitate...

Yellow ---- orange

Ca2+ with sodium hydroxide turns the precipitate...

Colourless ---- white

Al3+ with sodium hydroxide turns the precipitate...

Colourless---- White ----- colourless

Why do chemists need to test the purity of drinking water?

To make sure that they don't contain any harmful dissolved substances.

What is the test for halide ions?

-Drops of dilute nitric acid


-Then drops of silver nitrate


solution


-Precipitate forms

Sodium chloride and silver nitrate forms...

White precipitate

Sodium chloride and silver nitrate forms...

White precipitate

Sodium bromide and silver nitrate forms...

A Cream precipitate

Sodium iodide with silver nitrate forms...

A Yellow precipitate

What is the test for Ammonium ions?

Warming unknown substance with sodium hydroxide solution

How can ammonium ions be detected in the test?

-distinct smell


-turns damp red litamus paper blue

Why is chlorine sometimes added to water?

To kill microorganisms

Why is chlorine sometimes added to water?

To kill microorganisms

Why is aluminium sulphate added to water?

To remove small solid particles

What is the test for carbonate ions?

Dilute HCL


Should see bubbles


Limewater milky

What is hard water?

Calcium or Magnesium ions dissolved in qater

What is hard water?

Calcium or Magnesium ions dissolved in water

What is hard water?

Calcium or Magnesium ions dissolved in water

What are the problems of hard water

Doesn't easily form lather with soap


Forms a precipitate called scum


Soap is wasted

What is the calculation needed to find the concentrations of solutes?

Concentration = mass of solute


Volume of solution


G dm3

What is temporary hardness

Dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate

What is temporary hardness

Dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate

How can temporary hard water be removed?

Boiling


CHC breaks down when heated


Calcium is not soluble


Softening

What happens to calcium hydrogencarbonate when heat is applied?

It breaks down

What happens to calcium hydrogencarbonate when heat is applied?

It breaks down

What is the term for removing hardness from water?

Softening

What happens to calcium hydrogencarbonate when heat is applied?

It breaks down

What is the term for removing hardness from water?

Softening

Which substances form permanent hard water?

Calcium sulphate

Why is it a possibility that boiling water may not remove all the hardness?

Because water can contain two types of hardness

What type of ions do not form scum?

Sodium ions

How can an iron exchange column soften permanent hard water?

Ion exchange resin


Hard water is sent down the column


Calcium ions are swapped for sodium ions


Sodium ions do not form scum


Water is softwned

How can an iron exchange column soften permanent hard water?

Ion exchange resin


Hard water is sent down the column


Calcium ions are swapped for sodium ions


Sodium ions do not form scum


Water is softened