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135 Cards in this Set

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Bloom and Lahey's Model (1978)
Language is...
-influenced by several variables
-embedded in context
word order, word endings, speech
word meaning, the way word meanings link together, sequencing
conversation, social rules, matching language to the situation
first "cognitive" theory developed by
developed by Jean Piaget beginning about 1920
observed and described children at different ages
Piaget's theory was very
very broad, from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development, and memory
Piaget's assumptions about children
-children construct own knowledge in response to their experiences
-children learn many things on their own without intervention of older children or adults
-children highly motivated to learn and do not need rewards from adults to motivate learning
People translate incoming information into a form they can understand.
people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experience
Theory of Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor Stage
(birth to 2 years old)
-infant builds understanding of self and reality (how things work) through interactions with environment
in Sensorimoto Stage, learning takes place through
takes place through assimilation (organization and information and absorbing to existing schema) and accommodation (when object cannot be assimilated and the schemes have to be modified to include the object)
during the Sensorimotor Stage, knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because
because it's based on physical interactions/experiences
object permanence
is one of the most important accomplishments at the sensorimotor stage, a child's understanding that objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard
Theory of Cognitive Development:
Preoperational Stage
(ages 2-7)
child not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations, objects are classified in simple ways, especially by important features
children increase playing and pretending
Theory of Mind during Preoperational Stage
child still has trouble seeing things from different points of view
children's play is mainly categorized by this during Preoperational Stage
symbolic play (play with absence of actual objects involved)
Theory of Cognitive Development:
Concrete Operations
(age 7-11)
as physical experience accumulates, accommodation is increased, children begin to think abstractly
during concrete operations, a child's thought processes becomes
becomes more mature and "adult like" during this stage, start solving problems in more logical fashion, abstract hypothetical thinking not yet developed
during Concrete Operations, children only solve problems that
solve problems that apply to concrete events or objects (drawing inferences from observations to make generalization) during this stage
Theory of Cognitive Development:
Formal Operations
(age 11-15)
person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements, capable of hypothetical reasoning, ability for abstract thinking very similar to adult
parents of 8-12 month olds consistently recognize infant
recognize infant intonational patterns that convey request, frustration, greeting, and pleasant surprise
an infant's gaze is more likely to be initiated and maintained when
more likely when its mother is vocalizing and/or gazing back
Communication Intentions
at 8-9 months infant develops intentionality, are initially expressed primarily through gestures (9 month old will use gestures and vocalizations to accomplish several intentions)
Three Stage Development of Early Communication Function
Perlocutionary Stage (0-8 months)
Illocutionary Stage (8-12 months)
Locutionary Stage (12+ months)
in Perlocutionary Stage , communication is limited to behaviors that
(0-8 months)
behaviors that sustain an interaction such as cries, coos, and use of face and body nonspecifically during this stage
attentional interactions
infants are initially characterized as this during Perlocutionary Stage
contingency interactions
behavior directed toward imitating and sustaining interactions, characterized during perlocutionary stage
infants demonstrate understanding of object purpose or use during perlocutionary stage by
becoming more interested in manipulating objects and begin to use gestures
infant reaches for desired objects and for objects out of reach during
during perlocutionary stage, to later become a pointing gesture
Illocutionary Stage
(8-12 months)
-infants use conventional gestures, vocalization, or both to communicate intentions
-infant displays full range of gestures, including conventional means of showing, giving, pointing, and requesting
-each infant develops functional gestures or gestures that relate specific meaning
initial gestures are used to signal
signal protoimperatives and protodeclaratives
protoimperative pointing
important gesture of index finger used to request an object (reaching, pointing)
protodeclarative pointing
important gesture of index finger to draw someon's attention to an object to comment on it or share interest in it (joint attention pointing, showing)
the appearance of intentional gestures requires
requires a certain level of cognitive and social functioning
locutionary stage
(12+ months)
-first meaningful words appears
-words accompany or replace gestures to express
Infant-Directed Speech
-child directed speech/motherese/parentese
-infant-elicited social behavior consists of maternal adaptations in speech and language, gaze, facial expression, facial presentation and head momvents, and proxemics
speech and language directed to infants is
this speech is systematically modified, not babyish talking
maternal input is
is very important for infant's communication development
children who are deaf and exposed to maternal signing from birth
these type of children achieve all linguistic milestones at or before hearing children
IDS may facilitate
facilitate infant learning of phonological regularities
IDS is characterized by
characterized by short utterance length, simple syntax, and use of core vocabulary
mothers in IDS
paraphrase and repeat themselves (high rates of redundancy)
in IDS, maternal speech prior to 6 months
-contains less than 3 morphemes per utterance, increase in 6 months, and decrease again around 1 year anticipation of infant's own speech
-use paralinguistic variations beyond that found in adult to adult speech
appropriate and consistent adult ___________ is important in emergence of early communication
noting of a single object, action, or event, and is signaled by mother either following her infant's glance or commenting on object to attract infant's attraction
describe the sound of IDS
Infant-Directed Speech has higher pitch, content words and syllables are emphasized, vowel duration is longer, and there are longer pauses between utterances
compared to other languages, parents who speak American English
have more extreme modifications in speech than parents of other languages, especially Asian language
simplified speech
aids children in learning language
selected infant behaviors are treated as meaningful communication in IDS for
for maintaining a child's responsiveness
IDS fills 3 functions
1. gain and hold infant's attention
2. establish emotional bonds
3. enable communication to occur in earliest opportunity
other infant-elicited social behavior
gaze, facial expression, proxemics (interpersonal space)
a mother monitors her infant's gaze, adjusting conversational topic accordingly
facial expression
mothers use facial expression to complement talking, termination is signaled by frown, head turn, and gaze breaking, mother uses expressions to maintain infants' attention and aid comprehension
proxemics (interpersonal space)
-mother communicates with infant from very close distance
-as infant gets older, American mothers communicate from greater distance, results in less touching and more eye contact (cultural distances)
Joint Reference
assumes two or more individuals share a common focus
identification of autism spectrum disorder is partly based on lack of
lack of joint reference
important for language development are
infants develop gestural, vocal, verbal signals of directly attending or signaling notice within the context
three aspects of early joint referencing
indicating, deixis, naming
can be gestural, postural, or vocal
phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in utterance requires contextual information (here, there, this, that, before, after, you, me)
infants can associate names with referents prior before producing names
the ability to identify intention is
critical to joint attention.
when individuals understand others have goals, intention, and attentional states, able to enter into and direct another's attention
ability to engage in joint attention is
this ability is crucial for language development
the capacity to coordinate attention is
is a critical first step in learning to comprehend and predict the thoughts and actions of others
within context of sharing
child begins to appreciate intentional communication through this
joint attention plays an important role in development of theory of mind
routines offer
conventionalized, predictable contexts in which caregivers provide order
routines provide
scripts that have "slots" for infant's behavior and air meaningful interpretation of the event
reduce cognitive energy needed to participate and make sense (minimize cognitive load)
infants' event knowledge
is gained within familiar daily routines and events
greater semantic complexity and range in routines
in routines equal to longer utterances and more words used in familiar situations
joint action
shared behavior in familiar contexts, providing structure in which language can be analyzed
from game playing and routines children learn
children learn taking turns and conversational skills from these
crying shifts form a
form a demand mode to an anticipatory request mode (infant pauses in anticipation of their mother's response)
early examples of dialogues
peek-a-boo is an example of this
within exchange games
infants shift roles, take turns through this
turn taking
occurs in early feeding sessions
mom initiates exchange through smiles and talking to infants, resulting in
results in infant vocalizes and smiles when mom paused too long, results in interactional exchanges called protoconversations (initial elements of emerging conversation)
initial elements of emerging conversation, interactional exchange, both partners are active participants in this exchange
gestures and words will develop to
develop to fill infant's turn as true conversations develop
language processing may be limited by
may be limited by amount of incoming information, stored data, and demands of the task and available cognitive resources (ability to process information is limited)
top-down processing
-conceptually driven
-linguistic and nonlinguistic contexts help you predict the form and content of incoming linguistic information
-knowledge is used to cue lower order functions
-The cat caught a __________.
Bottom-up processing
-data driven
-analyze each word and then integrate infomation
top-down and bottom-up processing
-may be used simultaneously or rely more on one strategy
-heavily relies on words rather than incoming information (chicken feet for trick or treat)
cognitive skill and language abilities are
are associated and develop in parallel
organization of longer utterances requires
requires short term memory and knowledge of syntactic patterns and word classes
development of many grammatical constructions reflect
reflects cognitive development (to respond to a 'why' question, a child must be able to use 'because' and reverse the order)
Event-Based Knowledge and Taxonomic Knowledge are
are assumed to guide word acquisition
Event-Based Knowledge consists of
consists of sequences of events or routines that are temporal or casual
a child uses knowledge to form
to form scripts or sets of expectations that aid memory, enhance comprehension, and enable the child to interpret events
sets of expectations that aid memory, enhance comprehension, and enable the child to interpret events
taxonomic knowledge
-consists of categories and classes of words
-new words are compared to categories and organized for retrieval
event based knowledge (world knowledge)
influences vocabulary acquisition and may be the basis of taxonomic (word) knowledge
from repeated use, words
words become cues for the event
preschoolers rely on event-based knowledge while kindergarteners
kindergarteners use more categorical script-related groupings like 'things I eat', by age 7-10 children use taxonomic categories like 'food'
The developmental relationship between comprehension and production is
the developmental relationship between these two are unclear
a child doesn't fully comprehend first words before producing them, need greater
child need greater linguistic background and experience for this
up through age 2, comprehension is
up through age 2, this is highly context dependent
mother monitors child's input to check the accuracy of fit and provide feed =>
child's comprehension and production are fine-tuned essentially at the same time when this happens
within the first 50 words, comprehension
seems to precede production (understand 50 words vs. produce 10 words)
children respond best to verbal commands
respond best slightly above their production level
two strategies may be used with objects
do-what-you-usually-do (probably event strategy)
act-on-the-object-in-the-way-mentioned (use basic syntactic knowledge and event knowledge)
by late preschool, children use word order
use word order consistently for comprehension (may refer back to event knowledge)
by age 5 or 6 children rely
children rely consistently on syntactic and morphologic interpretation at this age
by age 7-9 children use
children use language to acquire more language
short, simple sentences are easier to process so that
so that new learning can occur from these type of sentences
as working memory improves, can it deal with
can deal with increasingly complex input and help child refine his/her knowledge
play is ideal for language acquisition because
-play is fun
-topics are shared
-games have structure and variation in the order of elements like grammar does
-games contain turn-taking
play and language develop
develops interdependently and demonstrate underlying cognitive developments
initially, both play and language are very concrete, with cognitive maturity, they
these two both become less concrete with cognitive maturity
at about the time children begin to combine symbols, they
by this time, begin to play symbolically
initially, preschoolers prefer functional explicit props (car, cup, doll), later
later use ambiguous props (blocks to represent other entities after this
Brown's 14 morphemes
1. Present Progressive Verb
2. Prepositions
3. Plurals
4. Irregular Past Tense Verbs
5. Possessives
6. Uncontractible Copula
7. Articles
8. Regular Past Tense
9. Regular Third Person Singular
10. Irregular Third Person Singular
11. Uncontractible Auxiliary
12. Contractible Copula
13. Contractible Auxiliary
give an example of Present Progressive Verb
(the "-ing" form)
(is) playing, (was) singing
give an example of prepositions
in (baby in tub)
on (kitty on bed)
give an example of plurals
toys, cats
give an example of irregular past tense verbs
came, fell, saw, hurt
give an example of possessive
daddy's car, baby's cup
give an example of uncontractible copula
The verb “to be” cannot be contracted in the context (Who is here? John is. Is John sick? Are you tired?)
give an example of articles
a, the
give an example of regular past tense
played, washed, wanted
give an example of regular third person singular
sees, wants, talks
give an example of irregular third person singular
does, has
give an example of uncontractible auxiliary
He is eating; Are you sleeping?
give an example of contractible copula
That's mine; It's pretty
give an example of contractible auxiliary
He's crying; They're running
a person, place, or think (dog, book)
express action (run, jump)
a word that modifies or describes a verb (he drove "slowly"), adjectives ("very" pretty coat); other adverbs (She ran "very" quickly")
a word that modifies/describes a noun (old, happy, big)
usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence (to, under, on, beside)
connect or conjoin other words (and, but, although, or)
precede nouns, include articles (a, an, the), possessive pronouns (his, her, their) and demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those)
include subject pronoun (I, you, me, we, she, us), object pronoun (me, you, us, him, her, them), possessive pronoun (above)