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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
verbal means of communica3on
Non-­‐speech communication means include
gestures, facial expressions and body posture
there are different ways to communicate with other people
smallest linguistic unit that is able, when combined with other such units, to establish word meanings and distinguish between them
e.g. seek vs. peak
socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule governed combinations of those symbols.
language is a set of static tools and is never modified
It’s a tool for social use. It’s not a set of static rules. It’s a process use and modification within the context of communication
Language evolve, grow, change, and die
Language can be expanded from borrowing from other languages.
according to ASHA, language evolves within specific...
historical, social, and cultural contexts;
Language, as a rule-governed behavior, is described by at least 5 parameters...
phonologic, morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic
language learning and use are determined by...
interaction of biological, cognitive, psychosocial, and environmental factors
effective use of language for communication requires...
broad understanding of human interaction including such associated factors as nonverbal cues, motivation, and sociocultural roles
neutral term used to describe a language variation. A variation of language spoken by a group of speakers specific to a geographic region, socioeconomic factors, class, ethnicity, and/or education background
Second language learners are usually observed developing a new language system that incorporates elements from the native language and elements from English they recently learned.
both speech and language are parts of a larger process of...
the process participants use to exchange information and ideas, needs, and desires
communication involves...
encoding, transmitting, and decoding the intended message
Communicative Competence
The degree which a speaker is successful in communicating
Human communication is a...
complex, systematic, collaborative, context bound tool for social action
Paralinguistic/Suprasegmental devices
intonation, stress, rate of speech, pause, etc
1) gestures, body posture, facial expression, eye contact, body movement, proxemics
2) it varies with the culture
abilities to talk about language, think about it, judge it, analyze it, and see it as an entity separate from its content
speaking, listening, reading and writing+signing
Language is a...
social tool and rule-governed system
purpose of language is
to serve the code for transmission between people
Language in use is influenced by
what precedes it and influences what follows
language happens in a vacuum
Language does not happen in a vacuum. It’s context bound
Shared rule systems allow users of a language to...
comprehend and to create messages
Linguistic competence
a language users underlying knowledge about the system of rule
Linguistic performance
Linguistic knowledge in actual usage. A user’s linguistic competence can not be measured directly and must be deduced from his/her linguistic performance
Language is generative.
Language is a productive or creative tool. Words can be combined in a variety of ways, refer more than one thing. The possibilities for creating new sentences are virtually endless.
Properties of Language...
Language is generative, reflexive, ability to communicate beyond immediate context, symbols used in language are arbitrary (e.g. cat).
Three major components:
content, form, use
5 basic rule systems found in language:
semantics, phonology, syntax, morphology, pragmatics
Components of Language
can be spoken or written
receptive or expressive
The form or structure of a sentence is governed by________.
Word order, organization, relationships between sentence elements
Each sentence must contain a _____ phrase and a _____ phrase.
noun, verb
Within each, word classes combine in predictable patterns
Linguistic context clarifies any ambiguity.
Morphology is concerned with...
the internal organization of words
the smaller grammatical unit and is indivisible without violating the meaning or producing meaningless units
2 types of morpheme:
Free Morpheme
Bound Morpheme
Free Morpheme
can stand alone
e.g. cat, feel, happy
Bound Morpheme
grammatical markers can't stand alone
Must be attached to free morphemes or to other bound morphemes.
• Attach to nouns, verbs, and adjectives (e.g. –s, -­‐est, un-­‐, -­‐ness)
• Two types: Inflectional and Derivational
include tense markers & plural markers
prefixes (un-­‐, in-­‐, pre-­‐, non,etc) & suffixes (-­‐ly, er, ness, ment)
Concern with the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables
The smallest linguistic unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. Families of very similar sounds
How many phonemes does English have?
rules that govern the distribution and sequencing of phonemes within a language (the sounds /kn/ and /ɡn/ are not permitted at the beginning of a word in Modern English but are in German and Dutch)
system of rules governing the meaning or content of words and word combinations
World knowledge
individual’s experiential understanding and memory of particular events
Word knowledge
contains word and symbol definitions and is primarily verbal
world and word knowledge are related
Word knowledge is usually based on world knowledge.
the ease of retrieval from memory and use of the concept
each word has 2 portions...
semantic features
semantic restrictions
semantic features
aspects of the meaning that characterize the word
semantic restrictions
prohibit certain word combinations because they are meaningless (male mother) or redundant (female girl)
Sentences represent a meaning greater than the sum of the individual words
The study of language in context concentrates on language as a communication tool that is used to achieve social ends. It requires understanding of the culture and individuals. It involves appropriate persons and circumstances
pragmatic rules govern...
conversational interactions
Sequential organization and coherence of conversations: turn taking/reciprocal, opening/closing/maintaining a conversation. Repair communicational errors/breakdowns
Selection of the appropriate linguistic form is influenced by
context, the speaker’s intention, and listener's characteristics
speech acts can only be direct
can be direct (Answer the phone.) and indirect (Could you please answer the phone?)
speech acts can be literal and nonliteral
Relationships of Language Components
Components may influence one another.
Changes in one may modify development in another.
Pragmatics is the organizing principle of language. Language is heavily influenced by context. Communication intention is the precursor before selecting content and form.
– Your underlying knowledge about language
e.g. rules of grammar, meanings of words
– Enables you to generate infinite number of novel sentences (generative system)
– Enables you to understand what other people generate (as long as it follows the rules)
– Enables you to make metalinguistic judgments
– What you actually for when you communicate
– Includes error due to fatigue, stress, distraction, etc
– Under ideal conditions, we couldn’t make errors
– Competence
often exceeds performance