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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are industrial actions

They are measures taken by trade unions or other groups to reduce productivity and harm the workplace in order to exert pressure on employera to abide by their conditions

What are strikes and the types of strikes

Employees may strike by refusing to work. There are

-token strikes: workers may stop working for a whole day, half a day, or a few hours in support of their demands

-selective strikes: only a certain number of workers, chosen perhaps by area, are called to strike by their trade union

-all out strikes: all workers who are union members are withdrawn until the dispute is resolved.

What is a wildcat strike

An unofficial strike that is not supported by the trade union

What is a no-strike agreement

An agreement signed by both sides so that an arbitrator can be assigned to solve any dispute about pay. The independent arbitrator listens to both sides then decides whats fair. This agreement ensures no strikes will occur, and reduces industrial action.

What are types of industrial actions other than strikes

-work to rule

-go slow

-overtime ban



What is picketing

When a group of workers stand at the entrance to the workplace and prevent other workers and suppliers from entering. It usually attracts unnecessary media attention and harms the business's reputation

How might employers react to industrial actions taken by employees

Employers may sack or suspend workers involved with industrial action or use a lockout whereby employees are locked outside of the business and prevented from going back to work. Employers can also impose a pay freeze when the dispute is about work practices

Which groups are affected by industrial actions





What are the drawbacks of industrial actions for employers

-loss of output

-loss of customers

-bad reputation

-loss of profit

What are the drawbacks of industrial actions for employees

-loss of wages

-loss of jobs

What are the drawbacks of industrial actions for customers

-if production is stopped, they may have to look for substitutes that may be more expensive or lesser of quality

-shortage of products

-delay in delivery

-if other busineses are the customers, they will lose output if raw materials are not supplied

What are the drawbacks of industrial actions for the economy

-workers might lose their income, lowering the standard of living

-government's revenue from income tax may decrease due to unemployment

-redundancy levels may increase

-exports may be lost

What is the TUC and what does it do

The Trade Union Congress is a federation of most trade unions in the Uk. It represents the trade union movement in general and holds an annual conference attended by delegates from each union where issues conceening all unions are debated. It acts as a pressure group to influence the government and employers. Its main objective is to influence and improve industrial, economic and social policies and conditions as far as they relate to the working population.

Describe the CBI

The Confederation of British Industry is the employer's equivalent obthe TUC. The CBI operates as a pressure group to put pressure on the government to act in the interest of its members (employers)

Describe the ACAS

Its provides

Advice: ACAS provides advice on a wide range of business activities concerning the management of the workforce, including recruitment,selection,training and payment

Conciliation: This is the process of trying to find a solution that satisfies the conflicting objectives of both parties involved

Arbitration: If conciliation fails, both parties may refer the dispute to an arbitrator.

What are benefits for firms negotiating with trade unions

-the company may find it easier to with one group representing a number of workers than with individual workers

-once a deal is agreed upon, a union will ensure that it applies to all workers.

-a union may take a more realistic and long term view than individuals

-Unions have built up many years of expertise, so they provide good suggestions regarding the firm's activities and practices

What are disadvantages for firms negotiating with trade unions

-Industrial actions will result in a fall of production, and consequently, a loss of revenue

-Large and powerful unions may exert too much pressure on a business, and force it to accept their terms. This may be damaging to firms

-There may be several trade unions bwing dealt with in a business. Therefore each issue would have to be negotiated with several groups. This results in prolonged negotiations

-a demand in higher wages increases costs and makes it less competitive

-trade unions may oppose new machinery seen as a threat to workers. Therefore, the business may find it difficult to modernize and increase effeciency as well as competitiveness

What are disadvantages of trade union activity for third parties

-closed shops and national minimum wage may reduce demand for labor

-strikes prevent workers willing to work from entering the workplace

-trade unions can influence the adoption of protectionist labor legislation, thus limiting the variety of available goods and increase price for customers

-investors are less inclined to invest in unionized industries, this decreases effeciency and progress

Describe alternative measures to trade union activity

Worker's participation includes:

-electing a worker's director

-allowing for a works council

-setting quality circles

-being a democratic leader

What are some pros of worker participation

-better relations between employer and employee

-higher motivation

-lower labor turnover

-better work environment

What are some cons of worker participation

-may be time consuming

-non-union members may lose out

-demand for change may create conflicts between employees and employers