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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose
3 Common Characteristics of Organizations?
Distinct Purpose
People or Members
Systematic structure
People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others
Direct the activities of other people in the organization
First-line manager (SUPERVISORS)
Responsible for directing the day to day activities of operative employees
Middle Manager
Manage other managers and maybe some employees and typically responsible for translating the goals set by top management into specific details that lower level managers can perform
Top Managers
Responsible for making decision about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members
Process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people
Primary activities managers perform
Doing the task correctly and refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs
Doing the right task; goal attainment
Management Process 4 parts?
1. Planning-setting goals
2. Organizing-determining how to achieve goals
3. Leading-motivating employees
4. Controlling-monitoring activities
What was Henry Mintzberg famous for?
Mintzber's Managerial roles (10 diff roles/behaviors)
Managerial roles 3 primary headings?
Specific categories of "managerial behavior", often grouped under three primary headings: 1. Interpersonal 2. Informational 3. Decisional
Small business
Any independently owned and operated profit-seeking enterprise that has fewer than 500 employees
Conceptual skills
ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
Interpersonal skills
The ability to work with and understand (motivate) others
Technical skill
Applying specialized knowledge
Political Skills
Enhancing one's position and building a power base
Management competencies
(Standard for management) A cluster of knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to effective managerial performance
Adam Smith wanted?
Wealth of Nations, DIVISIONS OF LABOR
Division of labor
The breakdown of jobs into narrow, repetitive tasks
Fredrick Taylor's father of what?
Scientific management
Industrial revolution
Machine power, mass production, transportation
Classical approach
Describe hypotheses of 1. Scientific management 2. General administrative
Scientific management
"One best way" for a job to be done
Gilbreth's: Frank and Lillian did what?
Eliminate wasteful hand and body motions
The Gilbreths classification scheme for labeling 17 basic hand motions
Henry Gantt?
Expanded scope to work of managers as well of operatives (Gantt chart)
Henry Fayol?
Fayol Management process (planning, organizing, leading, control)
3 waves of modernization?
Classical Contributions (Taylor, Gilbreth, Fayol Weber), Human Resource (, Quantative approach
Max Weber?
Bureaucracy!-Ideal organization characterized by division of labor, heirachry, rules, impersonal relationships
General administrative theorists
Developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice
Improve labor conditions (Courage and commitment to sufferage)
Motivation, leadership, power and authority (individual potential)
Managers function to communicate and motivate employees
Hawthorne studies?
Illumination levels on worker productivity "Human factor" on organizations Social norms or standards of group key to individual work behavior
Human Relations Movement
believed in the importance of employee satisfaction
Quantitiave Approach
WWII Operations Research-contributed directly to management decision making (PLANNING AND CONTROL RELATED DECISION MAKING)
Stimulated the HR approach?
1. Mechanistic view of classicists 2. Great depression
Koontz Process Approach
Management process is circular and continuous
Systems Approach
Defines a system as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that producesa unified whole
2 basic types of Systems
Open-dynamically interacts with it environment
Closed-no influence by and does not interact
Any group that is affected by organizational decisions and policies
Contingency Approach
Situational approach to management that replaces more simplistic systems and integrates much of management theory
What are the 3 waves of modernization by Toffler?
1. Agriculture
2. Industrialization
3. Information
Knowledge workers
Workers whose jobs are designed around applying info
Business process outsourcing
Outsourcing an entire business process
Global village
Refers to the concept of a boundaryless world
Multinational corporations (MNCs)
Companies that maintain significant operations in two or more countries at the same time but are based in one home country
Transnational Corporation (TNC)
Company that maintains operations in more than one country at the same time and decentralizes decision making in each operation to the local country
Borderless Organization
Geographic barriers are broken down
Organization 3 stages to go global?
1. Passive-exporting to foreign countries
2. Initial Overt Entry-Hiring foreign rep. (managers contract with foreign firms to produce their product)
3. Established International Operations-foreign subsidiary
Strategic Alliances
A domestic and a foreign firm share the cost of developing new products or building production facilities in a foreign country
Narrow focus in which one sees only through one's own view
5 dimensions of national culture
Power distance
Quantity of life
Uncertainty avoidance
Long-term vs short
Ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and "national culture"
9 dimensions!
Any equipment, tools or operating methods that are designed to make work more efficient
Any computer transaction that occurs when data are processed and transmitted over the internet (presenting product and filling orders)
The full breadth of activities included in a successful Internet-based enterprise
Applications of e-business concepts to all organization
A system of working at home on a computer that is linked to the office
Social Responsibility
A firm's obligation beyond that required by the law and economics to pursue long-term goals that are beneficial to society
Social Obligation
The obligation of a business to meet its economic and legal responsibilities and no more
Ethics and 3 views
Set of rules or principles that defines right from wrong
1. Utilitarian-decisions made on outcomes or consequences "greatest good for greatest number"
2. Rights view-respect and protect individual liberties and privileges
3. Theory of Justice-imposes and enforces rules fairly and impartially
Code of Ethics
Formal document stating ethical rules in an organization
Initiating a business and assuming risks and rewards
Pursuit of opportunities
A person who has entrepreneurial spirit in a large organization
Workforce Diversity
Varied background of organizational members
Create a more efficient operation through extensive layoffs
Linking staffing levels to organizational goals
Using outside firms to provide products or services
Contingent workforce
Part-time, temporary workers who are available for hire on as needed
Core employees
Small group of full-time employees who provide some essential jobs tasks for the org.
Customer responsive atmosphere
Employees attitudes are associated with customer satisfaction
Employees have the decision discretion to do whats necessary to please the customer
Continuous improvement
Constantly improve the quality of a product or service FAULT: false sense of security FIX: complete overhaul
Components of Continuous improvement management driven by customer needs
Work Process Engineering
Radical or quantum change in an organization
Benefits of Planning?
Reduces the impact of change
Minimizes waste and redundancy
Sets the standards to facilitate control
Drawbacks of planning?
Create rigidity
Can't be developed for a dynamic environment
Can't replace intuition and creativity
Strategic Plans
Plans that apply to the entire organization, establish the overall objectives DRIVE TO ACHIEVE GOALS! 5 yrs+ FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES
Tactical plans (Operational plans)
Specify the details of how the objectives are to be achieved (monthly weekly) HOW OBJECTIVES WILL BE OBTAINED
Single-use plan
A plan used to meet the needs of a situation
Standing plans
A plan that is ongoing and repeats performed actions
Management by objectives (MBO)
Specific performance objectives determined by employers and employees, feedback and rewards are allocated
Strategic management process
9 step process that involves strategic planning, implementation, and evaluation
Strategic management process 9 steps?
1. Identify the organization current mission, objectives and strategies
2. Analyze the environment
3. Identify the opportunties and threats
4. Analyze the organization's resources
5. Identify the strengths and weaknesses
6. Reassess the organizations mission and objectives
7. Formulate strategies
8. Implement strategies
9. Evaluate results
Grand strategies
Four primary types of strategies:
Growth, stability, retrenchment and combination
Mission statement
The purpose of an organization
Environment scanning
Scanning info to detect trends and create scenarios
Competitive intelligence
Seeks basic information about competitors
Positive external environmental factors
Negative external environmental factors
Internal resources that are available or things than an organization does well
Core competency
Any of the strengths that represent unique skills or resources that can determine the organization competitive edge
Resources that an organization lack or doesn't do well
SWOT analysis
Analysis of an organization strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in order to discover a niche they can exploit
Growth strategy
Increase the level of its operations
Occurs when two companies, combine their resources to form a new company
Larger company buys a smaller one and incorporates the acquired company's operations into its own
Stability strategy
Absence of significant changes Environment must be good
Retrenchment strategy
Company that is reducing its size, right now!
Combination strategy
Two or more growth, stability,and retrenchment strategies
Cost-leadership strategy
Lowest-cost producer in its industry
Differentiation strategy
Wants to be unique in its industry within a broad market
Focus strategy
Establish an advantage in a narrow market segment
(Copy methods of other successfulls) Search for the best practices among competitors or no competitors that lead to their superior performance
What are the 4 Grand strategies?
Growth, stability, retrenchment, and combination
Decision-making process
8 steps that include identifying, selecting, evaluating, the effectiveness of a solution
Decision implementation
Conveying the decision to those affected to see whether it has corrected the problem STEP 7!
Describes choices that are consistent and value maximizing within constraints
In making a decision, the decision maker knows the outcome of every possible alternative
The probability that a particular outcome will result from a given decision
Managers do not have full knowledge of the problem and cannot determine even a reasonable probability of alternative outcomes
The ability to produce novel and useful ideas
Making a good-enough decision
Simon's "Bounded rationality"
Behavior that is rational within the parameters of a simplified model that captures the essential features of a problem
Judgmental shortcuts
2 forms: Availability Representive
Availability heuristic
Tendency for people to base their judgement on information that is readily available to them
Representative heuristic
Tendency for people to base judgments of probability on things with which they are familiar
Escalation of commitment
An increased commitment to a previous decision despite negative information
Well-structured problems
Straightforward, familiar, easy defined RESPOND WITH: Programmed decision making
Ill-structured problems
New problems in which info is ambiguous or incomplete RESPOND WITH: non programmed decision making
Programmed decision
Repetitive decision that can be handled routinely *simple and relies on past occurrences
A series of interrelated sequential steps (difficulty: identifying the problem)
An explicit statement that tells managers what they ought or ought not to do
A general guide that establishes parameters for making decisions
Non Programmed decision
Decisions that must be custom-made to solve unique and nonrecurring problems
Advantages of group decision making?
Make better decision
More creative
5-7 people best!
generates more alternatives
Disadvantages of group decision making?
More time consuming
Minority domination-people never equal
Pressures to conform
Group think
The withholding by group members of different views in order to appear to be in agreement
An idea-generating process that encourages alternatives while withholding criticism
Nominal group technique
A decision-making technique in which group members are physically present but operate independently (each writes a list and collects them)
Electronic meeting
A type of nominal group technique in which participants are linked by computer (anonymity, honesty and speed)