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85 Cards in this Set

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Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama c. 6-4th BCE, wandering philosopher, shramana – searching for liberation
from suffering (rebirth and redeath), one who has perfected the ethics “sila”, teacher of the Dharma
“truth”, one who has perfected wisdom “panna”, one who is awakened to the truth on his own.
nibbana/nirvana
Nibbana/Nirvana – extinguish pain, craving, thirst. The Buddha described nirvana as the perfect peace of
the state of mind that is free from craving, anger and other afflictive states (kilesas). The subject is at
peace with the world, has compassion for all and gives up obsessions and fixations. This peace is
achieved when the existing volitional formations are pacified, and the conditions for the production of
new ones are eradicated. In Nibbana the root causes of craving and aversion have been extinguished
such that one is no longer subject to human suffering (dukkha) or further states of rebirths in samsara.
Bodhisattva
“Buddha to be” term used by the Buddha in the Pāli Canon to refer to himself both in his
previous lives and as a young man in his current life, prior to his enlightenment, in the period during
which he was working towards his own liberation.
parinirvana
absolute wisdom. In Buddhism, parinirvana is the final nirvana, which occurs upon the
death of the body of someone who has attained complete awakening (bodhi). It implies a release from
the bhavachakra, Saṃsāra, karma and rebirth as well as the dissolution of the skandhas. The parinirvana
of the Buddha is described in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta. Because of its attention to detail, the
Mahaparinibbana Sutta (of the Theravada tradition) has been resorted to as the principal source of
reference in most standard studies of the Buddha's life[1]. It is also the oldest existing account. According
to the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra (also called the Nirvana Sutra), the Buddha taught that
parinirvana is the realm of the Eternal, Bliss, the Self, and the Pure.
Siddhartha Gautama/Gotama
c. 6-4th BCE, one who found enlightenment on his own, had a miraculous
conception and birth (lotus, beautiful and pure transcending from the muk), renounces his world as a
prince to become a wandering philosopher, meets the previous Buddha in past life and covers pot hole
for him
three marks of existence
dukkha, Anicca, Anatta. According to tradition, after much meditation,
Siddhartha achieved Nirvana and awakening thus becoming the Buddha Shakyamuni. With the faculty of
pure wisdom the Buddha directly perceived that everything in the physical world (and everything in the
phenomenology of psychology) is marked by these three characteristics...
Brahmanical Tradition
Priests were schooled at an early age and memorized text to perform sacrifices,
teachings were preserved through the mind of the few males, fire sacrifice (yajna) was important as
many animals were sacrificed to the gods in hopes of bringing good fortune for families, valued sons
over daughters
Patimokkha
In Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline,
consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis). It is contained
in the Suttavibhanga, a division of the Vinaya Pitaka. The four parajikas (defeats) are rules entailing
expulsion from the sangha for life. If a monk breaks any one of the rules he is automatically 'defeated' in
the holy life and falls from monkhood immediately. He is not allowed to become a monk again in his
lifetime. Intention is necessary in all these four cases to constitute an offence. The four parajikas for
bhikkus are:
1. Sexual intercourse, that is, any voluntary sexual interaction between a bhikku and a living being,
except for mouth-to-mouth intercourse which falls under the Sanghadisesa.
2. Stealing, that is, the robbery of anything worth more than 1/24 troy ounce of gold (as
determined by local law.)
3. Intentionally bringing about the death of a human being, even if it is still an embryo — whether
by killing the person, arranging for an assassin to kill the person, inciting the person to die, or
describing the advantages of death [1].
4. Deliberately lying to another person that one has attained a superior human state, such as
claiming to be an arahant when one knows one is not, or claiming to have attained one of the
jhanas when one knows one hasn't.
The Vedas
The class of "Vedic texts" is aggregated around the four canonical Saṃhitās or Vedas proper
(turīya), of which three (traya) are related to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical (Iron Age)
Vedic religion: large body of texts and hymns that were to be recited by Brahman priests
jhanas
is a meditative state of profound stillness and concentration. It is sometimes taught as an
abiding in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of
attention,[1]characterized by non-dual consciousness.[2][3] Other times it is taught as an abiding in which
mind becomes very still but does not merge with the object of attention, and is thus able to observe and
gain insight into the changing flow of experience.[4][5] It is discussed in the Pali Canon (and the parallel
agamas) and post-canonical Theravada Buddhist literature. The Buddha himself entered jhana during his
own quest for enlightenment, and is constantly seen in the suttas encouraging his disciples to develop
jhāna as a way of achieving awakening and liberation.[6][7][8] A key innovative teaching of the Buddha was
that Jhana should be combined with the practice of Vipassana.[9] Just before his passing away, The
Buddha entered the jhānas in direct and reverse order, and the passing away itself took place after rising
from the fourth jhāna.
Soma
was a ritual drink of importance; It is described as prepared by extracting juice from the stalks of
a certain plant. In both Vedic and Zoroastrian tradition, the drink is identified with the plant, and also
personified as a divinity, the three forming a religious or mythological unity. drug, plant, hallucinogen
that pleased the gods
Agni
God of Fire, very important b/c offerings and sacrifices were the “medium” for sacrifices to the
gods, in hopes of bringing good fortune. They must please the gods for sons, prosperity, food, etc.
Everything comes from the gods.
tanha
“Thirst” for pleasures – lead to attachment. Thirst is the source of suffering/dukkha
brahmins
have historically been the class of educators, scholars and preachers in Hinduism. They are
considered as belonging to the "forward castes" of the four varnas of Hinduism. The English word
brahmin is an anglicised form of the Sanskrit word Brāhmaṇa, "having to do with Brahman (Sanskrit: ब्रह्म)
or divine knowledge".[2] The words Vipra "learned",[6] or Dvija "twice-born".[7] are used synonymously
with the the word 'Brahmin'.
avijja
“ignorance” characterizes one who is not awakened. – delusion
The Vedic sacrifice
fire sacrifice (yajna) is important because fire was the medium for sacrifice to the
gods. Brahmins wanted to please the gods by sacrificing animals. In the buddhist’s perspective, this was
unaccepted b/c the intentional killing of say a goat would bring suffering to one’s life – goes against the
1st precept of refrain from intentional killing
Three fires
greed, hatred, and delusion; are said to be extinguished when one reaches nirvana
sramana/samana
searching for liberation from suffering (rebirth and redeath), “one who strives”
wandering philosopher, seeks the dharma
yoga
(samatha) training the mind and body, concentration meditation, help in liberating from samsara,
although it is effective – it is only temporary (only when meditating), Gotama then tries severe
asceticism by means to conquer the body/ pain
Sila
“ethics” –comprises actions in the world; consist of right speech, right action, and right livelihood
Samadhi
“concentration” state of mind where one is very concentrated (training the mind); consists of
right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration
Samatha meditation
calming concentrating, yoga, comprises a suite, type or style of Buddhist
meditation or concentration practices designed to enhance sustained voluntary attention, and
culminates in an attention that can be sustained effortlessly and for hours on end.[1] Samatha is a subset
of the broader family of samadhi ("concentration") meditation practices
Upanishads
7-6th BCE, collection of texts with multiple authors and voices, leaving everything behind
to find the “truth”, asceticism – punishing the self, wearing little or no clothing. They argue that the
source of the universe is Brahman, all of us possess a part of Brahman, atman – self. Writers of the
Upanishads believed in rebirth – focus of religion changes from happiness in this life to wanting to
escape from the cycle of rebirth/redeath. Life is suffering.
Panna
“wisdom” true understanding; consists of right view/understanding and right directed thought;
has been translated as "wisdom," "understanding," "discernment," "cognitive acuity," or "know-how." In
some sects of Buddhism, it especially refers to the wisdom that is based on the direct realization of the
Four Noble Truths, impermanence, interdependent origination, non-self, emptiness, etc. Prajñā is the
wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring about enlightenment.
Brahman
(vedic) sacrifice/ priest; (Upanishads) refers to source of the universe. “We are all Brahman”.
is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter,
energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe.[1] The nature of Brahman is
described as transpersonal, personal and impersonal by different philosophical schools.
Atman
“self” or soul, essential self within us, In Buddhism, the belief in the existence of an unchanging
ātman is the prime consequence of ignorance, which is itself the cause of all misery and the foundation
of saṃsāra. All things are subject to impermanence.
Panca Sila
5 precepts, vows for everyone; lay people follow just these: 1) don’t kill 2) don’t take what is
not given to you 3) abstain from sexual misconduct 4) don’t lie 5) refrain from intoxicants
Siddartha Gautama/Gotama
c. 6-4th BCE, one who found enlightenment on his own, had a miraculous
conception and birth (lotus, beautiful and pure transcending from the muk), renounces his world as a
prince to become a wandering philosopher, meets the previous Buddha in past life and covers pot hole
for him
Five hindrances
1) sensual delights 2) anger 3) being tired 4) excitement/depression 5) doubt in dharma;
these keep you from concentrating, sensual pleasures cloud the mind just as alcohol
Middle Path
buddhist practice of non-extremism, the Middle Way crystallizes the Buddha's Nirvanabound
path of moderation away from the extremes of sensual indulgence and self-mortification and
toward the practice of wisdom, morality and mental cultivation. not severe asceticism but not a life of
luxury either
vipassana
insight meditation, deconstruct the self; Samatha is a focusing, pacifying and calming
meditation, common to many traditions in the world, notably yoga. It is used as a preparation for
vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight.
This dichotomy is also sometimes discussed as "stopping and seeing." In Buddhist practice it is said that,
while samatha can calm the mind, only insight can reveal how the mind was disturbed to start with,
which leads to prajñā (Pāli: paññā, wisdom) and jñāna (Pāli: ñāṇa, knowledge) and thus understanding,
preventing it from being disturbed again.
Jainism
is an ancient dharmic religion from India that prescribes a path of non-violence for all forms of
living beings in this world. Its philosophy and practice relies mainly on self effort in progressing the soul
on the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness. Any soul which has conquered its own inner enemies and
achieved the state of supreme being is called jina. strict cannot kill insects, sweep the floor before
walking
triple gem/ three refuges
Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha; The Three Jewels, also called the Three
Treasures, the Three Refuges, or the Triple Gem, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and
look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge.

The Three Jewels are:
 Buddha (Sanskrit, Pali: The Enlightened or Awakened One; Chn: 佛陀, Fótuó, Jpn: 仏, Butsu, Tib:
sangs-rgyas, Mong: burqan), who, depending on one's interpretation, can mean the historical
Buddha, Shakyamuni, or the Buddha nature—the ideal or highest spiritual potential that exists
within all beings;
 Dharma (Sanskrit: The Teaching; Pali: Dhamma, Chn: 法, Fǎ, Jpn: Hō, Tib: chos, Mong: nom), the
teachings of the Buddha.
 Sangha (Sanskrit, Pali: The Community; Chn: 僧, Sēng, Jpn: Sō, Tib: dge-'dun, Mong: quvaraɣ),
The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist
to do the same. Also used more broadly to refer to the community of practicing Buddhists.
The Four Sights
when Siddhartha was 29, he left the kingdom with his charioteer and encountered the
4 sights: 1) old man (old age) first experience of dukkha – suffering, compassion arose within him 2)
person with many deformities (sickness), compassion arose within him 3) corpse (death) – he wants to
find an end to suffering 4) ascetic monk (liberating truth from samsara), at that moment he too
renounces the world, cuts off his noble clothes, wanders naked, and wears rags of the dead.
Mara
“The tempter” ruler of Samsara, he does not want to lose power. He is threatened by Siddhartha
(afraid he will teach others if he reaches his goal) and tries to distract him (has daughters dance
provocatively, brings forth his army) but fails b/c Gotama has more merit. Gotama touches the earth
“calling the Earth to witness” and defeats Mara.
The Eightfold Path
broken into sila, samadhi, and panna: is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who
described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of selfawakening.[
1] It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate
greed, hatred, and delusion. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha's Four Noble Truths;
the first element of the Noble Eightfold Path is, in turn, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths. It is
also known as the Middle Path or Middle Way.
jataka tales
in jataka stories, Gotama was an animal, refer to a voluminous body of folklore-like
literature native to India concerning the previous births (jāti) of the Buddha. The word most specifically
refers to a text division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of
the Sutta Pitaka. Jataka also refers to the traditional commentary on this book
bhikkhu
“monk” follow 227 rules regarding how to eat, sleep, beg for food, behavior; cultivate a way
of being. Samanera (novice) needs to wait til age 20 to become full-fledged monk but can be a novice by
the age of seven
Dhamma/Dharma
teachings about the truth and the truth itself – solution to be liberated from
Samsara. For practicing Buddhists, references to "Dharma" or Dhamma in Pali, particularly as "the"
Dharma, generally means the teachings of the Buddha, commonly known throughout the East as
Buddha-Dharma. The status of Dharma is regarded variably by different Buddhist traditions. Some
regard it as an ultimate truth, or as the font of all things which lies beyond the 'three realms' (Sanskrit:
tridhatu) and the 'wheel of becoming'
bhikkhuni
“nun” follow 311 rules; Samaneri (novices) had to wait til age 18 to become a nun
karma/kamma
law of cause and effect, based on intentions “cetana”. What one does in one life will
ultimately affect him (good or bad) in the next life. Puts emphasis on the actions one commits. act,
action, performance"[1]; Pali: kamma) in Indian religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood
as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect (i.e., the cycle called saṃsāra) originating in
ancient India and treated in Hindu, Jain, Sikh and Buddhist philosophies. Karmic effects of all deeds are
said to shape the past, present and future experiences. Karma is not deterministic, it can be subject to
change
samsara
the cycle of rebirth and redeath. widely believed in India’s culture. is the endless cycle of
suffering caused by birth, death and rebirth (i.e. reincarnation) within Buddhism, Bön, Hinduism,
Jainism, Sikhism and other related religions. According to these religions, one's karmic "account
balance" at the time of death is inherited via the state at which a person is reborn.[citation needed] During the
course of each worldly life, actions committed (for good or ill) determine the future destiny of each
being in the process of becoming
Metta
“kindness” The object of mettā meditation is loving kindness (love without attachment).
Traditionally, the practice begins with the meditator cultivating loving kindness towards themselves,[7]
then their loved ones, friends, teachers, strangers, enemies, and finally towards all sentient beings.
Buddhists believe that those who cultivate mettā will be at ease because they see no need to harbour ill
will or hostility. Buddhist teachers may even recommend meditation on mettā as an antidote to
insomnia and nightmares. It is generally felt that those around a mettā-full person will feel more
comfortable and happy too. Radiating mettā is thought to contribute to a world of love, peace and
happiness. metta is the antidote to anger.
cetana
“intentions” from a buddhist perspective, one who commits a crime with good intentions
(stealing to feed one’s children) will not be held as outrageous as the Jains – who argue that everything
has kharma, same punishment regardless of “intentions” – they sweep the floor before walking
Buddhist cosmology
is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the
canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries.
hungry ghosts
spirits that feed off human emotions. “mouth the size of a needle’s eye, and a stomach
the size of a mountain” they have hunger for a particular substance or object
Sangha
Sangha (Sanskrit, Pali: The Community; Chn: 僧, Sēng, Jpn: Sō, Tib: dge-'dun, Mong: quvaraɣ),
The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist
to do the same. Also used more broadly to refer to the community of practicing Buddhists.

__________
“community” consisting of monks, nuns, novices, and lay people. Why should one renounce?
Renunciation is the way of living that is most conduciv to progress along the path to enlightenment.
Buddhists traditionally consider monastic life to provide the environment most conducive to advancing
toward enlightenment, and the Sangha is responsible for maintaining, translating, advancing, and
spreading the teachings of the Buddha.
deva
in Buddhism is one of many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of
being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, living more contentedly than the average human
being. From a human perspective, devas share the characteristic of being invisible to the physical human
eye. The presence of a deva can be detected by those humans who have opened the divyacakṣus (Pāli:
dibbacakkhu), an extrasensory power by which one can see beings from other planes
Parajika
The four parajikas (defeats) are rules entailing expulsion from the sangha for life. If a monk
breaks any one of the rules he is automatically 'defeated' in the holy life and falls from monkhood
immediately. He is not allowed to become a monk again in his lifetime. Intention is necessary in all these
four cases to constitute an offence. The four parajikas for bhikkus are:
1. Sexual intercourse, that is, any voluntary sexual interaction between a bhikku and a living being,
except for mouth-to-mouth intercourse which falls under the Sanghadisesa.
2. Stealing, that is, the robbery of anything worth more than 1/24 troy ounce of gold (as
determined by local law.)
3. Intentionally bringing about the death of a human being, even if it is still an embryo — whether
by killing the person, arranging for an assassin to kill the person, inciting the person to die, or
describing the advantages of death [1].
4. Deliberately lying to another person that one has attained a superior human state, such as
claiming to be an arahant when one knows one is not, or claiming to have attained one of the
jhanas when one knows one hasn't.
Dukkha
Dukkha – “suffering” or unsatisfaction, one of the three natures of existence along with (anicca and
anatta), just about everything brings about dukkha.
Vinaya
Vinaya - meaning 'leading out', 'education', 'discipline') is the regulatory framework for the Buddhist
monastic community, or sangha, based in the canonical texts called Vinaya Pitaka. At the heart of the
Vinaya is a set of rules known as Patimokkha (Pāli), or Pratimoksha (Sanskrit). The Vinaya was orally
passed down from the Buddha to his disciples.
Anicca
“impermanence” all things are subject to change.
Theravada
literally, "the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching", is the oldest surviving
Buddhist school. It was founded in India. It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early
Buddhism,[1] and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the
population[2]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand). Theravada is
also practiced by minorities in parts of southwest China (by the Shan and Tai ethnic groups), Vietnam (by
the Khmer Krom), Bangladesh (by the ethnic groups of Baruas, Chakma, and Magh), Malaysia and
Indonesia, while recently gaining popularity in Singapore and the Western World. Today Theravada
Buddhists number over 100 million worldwide, and in recent decades Theravada has begun to take root
in the West and in the Buddhist revival in India.
Anatta/Anatman
No self, nothing in us that is permanent, there is no essential soul, no neverchanging
self. We are not distinct entities but distinct processes (everchanging)
Abhidhamma
is the last of the three pitakas, that is, baskets, constituting the Pali Canon, the scriptures
of Theravāda Buddhism. The Abhidhamma pitaka is a detailed scholastic reworking of doctrinal material
appearing in the Suttas, according to schematic classifications. It does not contain systematic
philosophical treatises, but summaries or enumerated lists
Sukkha
“bliss” opposite of dukkha, problem: we want to attach to it, it is subject to change – dukkha
arises.
The Five Aggregates /khandas
5 khandha/skandas – 1) Rupa – form, impermanent 2) vedana- sensations (pleasant,
unpleasant, and neutral) 3) sanna – perceptions, ability to recognize things ex. book 4) samskara –
“intentions” things that bring about karmic results ex. I won’t kill the goat. 5) vinnana – senses,
awareness that lead to functions: eye, nose, body, mind, and conscienceness.
Parajika
The four parajikas (defeats) are rules entailing expulsion from the sangha for life. If a monk
breaks any one of the rules he is automatically 'defeated' in the holy life and falls from monkhood
immediately. He is not allowed to become a monk again in his lifetime. Intention is necessary in all these
four cases to constitute an offence. The four parajikas for bhikkus are:
1. Sexual intercourse, that is, any voluntary sexual interaction between a bhikku and a living being,
except for mouth-to-mouth intercourse which falls under the Sanghadisesa.
2. Stealing, that is, the robbery of anything worth more than 1/24 troy ounce of gold (as
determined by local law.)
3. Intentionally bringing about the death of a human being, even if it is still an embryo — whether
by killing the person, arranging for an assassin to kill the person, inciting the person to die, or
describing the advantages of death [1].
4. Deliberately lying to another person that one has attained a superior human state, such as
claiming to be an arahant when one knows one is not, or claiming to have attained one of the
jhanas when one knows one hasn't.
The Four Noble Truths
is one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. In broad terms, these truths
relate to suffering (or dukkha), its nature, its origin, its cessation and the path leading to its cessation.
They are among the truths Gautama Buddha is said to have realized during his experience of
enlightenment.
1. The Nature of Suffering (Dukkha):
"This is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death
is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; union with what is
displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants
is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.”
2. Suffering's Origin (Samudaya):
"This is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to renewed
existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there, that is, craving for
sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination."
3. Suffering's Cessation (Nirodha):
"This is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and
cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it,
nonreliance on it."
4. The Way (Mārga) Leading to the Cessation of Suffering:
"This is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is the Noble Eightfold
Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort,
right mindfulness, right concentration.
The Story of the Mustard Seed
Gautama Buddha told the story of the grieving mother and the mustard
seed. When a mother loses her only son, she takes his body to the Buddha to find a cure. The Buddha
asks her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a family that has never lost a child, husband, parent or
friend. When the mother is unable to find such a house in her village, she realizes that death is common
to all, and she cannot be selfish in her grief
The Story of the Arrow
Buddha responded with a story of a man shot with a poisoned arrow. The man's
family summons the doctor to have the poison removed, and the doctor gives an antidote: "But the man
refuses to let the doctor do anything before certain questions can be answered. The wounded man
demands to know who shot the arrow, what his caste and job is, and why he shot him. He wants to
know what kind of bow the man used and how he acquired the ingredients used in preparing the
poison. Malunkyaputta, such a man will die before getting the answers to his questions. It is no different
for one who follows the Way. I teach only those things necessary to realize the Way. Things which are
not helpful or necessary, I do not teach."
jhanas
is a meditative state of profound stillness and concentration. It is sometimes taught as an
abiding in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of
attention,[1]characterized by non-dual consciousness.[2][3] Other times it is taught as an abiding in which
mind becomes very still but does not merge with the object of attention, and is thus able to observe and
gain insight into the changing flow of experience.[4][5] It is discussed in the Pali Canon (and the parallel
agamas) and post-canonical Theravada Buddhist literature. The Buddha himself entered jhana during his
own quest for enlightenment, and is constantly seen in the suttas encouraging his disciples to develop
jhāna as a way of achieving awakening and liberation.[6][7][8] A key innovative teaching of the Buddha was
that Jhana should be combined with the practice of Vipassana.[9] Just before his passing away, The
Buddha entered the jhānas in direct and reverse order, and the passing away itself took place after rising
from the fourth jhāna.
The Dhamma as a Raft
once the raft has served its purpose, one must learn to let go and continue his
journey without the raft. This emphasizes the clinging nature (attachment). The Buddha's teaching does
not start off with any kind of theoretical dogmas or beliefs. It begins with a simple observations that
human life is essentially problematic. These problems, difficulties, inadequacies the Buddha refers to as
Dukkha, is usually translated as suffering. And the value of the Dhamma is pragmatic and instrumental.It
offers to show us the way out of our problematic situations and the way to attain the true happiness.
The Buddha compares the Dhamma to a raft. We use a raft to get from one side of a river to the other,
not to worship, enshrine or to put on our head and carry around with us wherever we go. In the same
way, we use the Dhamma as our means to cross from our present state of bondage and suffering to the
other shore, the state of absolute freedom, Nibbana.
Sonadanda Sutta
Brahmin royalty who perfected the vedas, worried about his respectability and
reputation when confronted by the Buddha. Gotama gets him to see the world from the perspective of a
buddhist. Brahmanism is limited according to a Buddhist point of view. Gotama asks Sonadanda.. What
makes a good Brahman? He gets him to reinterpret the meaning of Brahman from a Buddhist point of
view – down to 2: (ethics and wisdom)
________
It records the discussion between the Buddha and Sonadanda. The Buddha asks him what things enable a man to make a just claim to be a brahmin and Sonadanda answers him. The Buddha makes him admit that birth is of no importance, only the good life matters. The Buddha then teaches him what is meant by the good life in the Buddha's own doctrine, in very much the same way as in that of the Sāmaññaphala Sutta. D.i.111ff.
Satipatthana Suttha
In this sutta, the Buddha identifies four references for establishing mindfulness (satipatthana): body, sensations (or feelings), mind (or consciousness) and mental contents. These are then further broken down into the following sections and subsections
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ex) Body: breathing, posture, clear comprehending, reflections on the repulsiveness of the body, reflections on material elements, and cemetery contemplations
Kutadanta Sutta
(about the sacrifices & Buddhism's way) On the eve of offering a great sacrificial feast, the brahmin Kutadanta went to see the Buddha for advice on how best to conduct the sacrifice. Giving the example of a former King Mahavijita, who also made a great sacrificial offering, the Buddha declared the principle of consent by four parties from the provinces, namely, noblemen, ministers, rich brahmins and house holders; the eight qualities to be possessed by the king who would make the offerings; the four qualities of the brahmin royal adviser who would conduct the ceremonies and the three attitudes of mind towards the sacrifices. With all these conditions fulfilled, the feast offered by the king was a great success, with no loss of life of sacrificial animals, no hardship on the people, no one impressed into service, every one co-operating in the great feast willingly. The brahmin Kutadanta then asked the Buddha if there was any sacrifice which could be made with less trouble and exertion, yet producing more fruitful result. The Buddha told him of the traditional practice of offering the four requisites to bhikkhus of high morality. Less troublesome and more profitable again was donating a monastery to the Order of Bhikkhus. Better still were the following practices in ascending order of beneficial effects. (i) Going to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha for refuge; (ii) observance of the Five Precepts; (iii) going forth from the homelife and leading the holy life, becoming established in morality, accomplished in the four jhanas, and equipped with eight kinds of higher knowledge resulting in the realization of extinction of asavas, the sacrifice which entails less trouble and exertion but which excels all other sacrifices.
Anatta-lakkhana Sutta
The Anattalakkhaṇa Sutta (Pali, "Not-Self Characteristic Discourse"), also known as the Pañcavaggiya Sutta (Pali, "Group of Five [Ascetics]"), is the second discourse delivered by the Buddha.[1] In this discourse, the Buddha analyzes the constituents of a person's body and mind (khandha) and demonstrates that they are each impermanent (anicca), subject to suffering (dukkha) and thus unfit for identification with a "self" (atta).
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The Anattalakkhana Sutta is a document from the Pali canon of Buddhist
scriptures in which the Buddha argues for this idea (the idea of anatta - no self)
Sutta Pitaka
The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka; or Suttanta Pitaka; cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sūtra Piṭaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or Pali Canon, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. The Sutta Pitaka contains more than 10,000 suttas (teachings) attributed to the Buddha or his close companions
Sabbasava Sutta
the Sabbasava Sutta, the Buddha describes "a fetter of views" in the following manner:
"This is how [a person of wrong view] attends inappropriately: 'Was I in the past? ... Shall I be in the future? ... Am I? Am I not? What am I? ...'
"As he attends inappropriately in this way, one of six kinds of view arises in him: ...
'I have a self...'
'I have no self...'
'It is precisely by means of self that I perceive self...'
'It is precisely by means of self that I perceive not-self...'
'It is precisely by means of not-self that I perceive self...'
'This very self of mine ... is the self of mine that is constant...'
"This is called a thicket of views, a wilderness of views, a contortion of views, a writhing of views, a fetter of views. Bound by a fetter of views, the uninstructed ... is not freed, I tell you, from suffering & stress.
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explains the that a fettered view (attachment to self) is not good
gradual path
???
eight and ten precepts
The first five precepts are mandatory for every Buddhist, although the fifth precept is often not observed, because it bans the consumption of alcohol. Precepts no. six to ten are laid out for those in preparation for monastic life and for devoted lay people unattached to families. The eight precepts put together number eight and nine and omit the tenth. Lay people may observe the eight precepts on Buddhist festival days.
1) no killing (harming living beings)
2) no stealing (taking things not given)
3) no sexual misconduct
4) no lying (false speech)
5) no intoxicating substances
6) no taking untimely meals
7) no dancing, singing, music, or entertainment
8) no use of garlands, perfumes, or cosmetics
9) no use of high seats
10) no accepting gold or silver (monetary transactions)
Yathabhutam
reality as-it-is (yathā-bhūta). This reality is also referred to as thusness or suchness (tathatā) indicating simply that it (reality) is what it is.
Buddhist pilgrimage
The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Rajgir. This is the area where Gautama Buddha lived and taught, and the main sites connected to his life are now important places of pilgrimage for both Buddhists and Hindus. However, many countries that are or were predominantly Buddhist have shrines and places which can be visited as a pilgrimage.
upasaka/upasika
Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for "attendant".[1] This is the title of followers of Buddhism (or, historically, of Gautama Buddha) who are not monks, nuns, or novice monastics in a Buddhist order, and who undertake certain vows (The Five Precepts).[2] In modern times they have a connotation of dedicated piety that is best suggested by terms such as "lay devotee" or "devout lay follower."[3]
Buddha images
???
Merit-making
Merit (Sanskrit puṇya, Pāli puñña) is a concept in Buddhism. It is that which accumulates as a result of good deeds, acts or thoughts and that carries over to later in life or to a person's next life. Such merit contributes to a person's growth towards liberation. Merit can be gained in a number of ways.
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Buddhist monks earn merit through mindfulness, meditation, chanting and other rituals.
A post-canonical commentary, elaborating on the canonically identified meritorious triad of dana-sila-bhavana (see D.III,218), states that lay devotees can make merit by performing these seven more specific acts:
1) honoring others (apacayana-maya)
2) offering service (veyyavacca-maya)
3) involving others in good deeds (pattidana-maya)
4) being thankful for others' good deeds (pattanumodana-maya)
5) listening to Teachings (dhammassavana-maya)
6) instructing others in the Teachings (dhammadesana-maya)
7) straightening one's own views in accord with the Teachings (ditthujukamma)[6]
mindfulness
4 Foundations for mindfulness: body, feelings, states of mind, Dhamma
Anapanasati Bhavana/Meditation on the Breath
the cultivation of mindfulness with breathing in and out; The correct and complete meaning of Anapanasati-bhavana to take one truth or reality of nature and then observe, investigate, and scrutinize it within the mind with every inhalation and every exhalation.
Theragatha and Therigatha
The Theragatha (-gāthā), often translated as Verses of the Elder Monks (Pāli: thera elder (masculine) + gatha verse), is a Buddhist scripture, a collection of short poems supposedly recited by early members of the Buddhist sangha. In the Pali Canon, the Theragatha is classified as part of the Khuddaka Nikaya, the collection of short books in the Sutta Pitaka. Many of the verses of the Theragatha concern the attempts of monks to overcome the temptations of Mara. It consists of 264 poems, organized into 21 chapters. Notable texts from the Theragatha include the eighth poem of chapter sixteen, consisting of verses recited by the reformed killer Angulimala, and the third poem of chapter seventeen, in which the Buddha's cousin and retainer Ananda mourns the passing of his master. The natural companion to the Theragatha is the Therigatha, the Verses of the Elder Nuns
Vinaya Pitaka
The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka. Its primary subject matter is the monastic rules for monks and nuns. The name Vinaya Piṭaka (vinayapiṭaka) is the same in Pāli, Sanskrit and other dialects used by early Buddhists in India, and means basket of discipline.
Bhikkhuni Sangha
female version of the Sangha. Buddha relented and allowed this. They have 311 rules (227 for males) and additional 8 precepts
Buddha’s first sermon
The first sermon included here are the words of the Buddha when he spoke in the deer park at Benares as recorded in the SAMYUTTA-NIKAYA V:420, one of the collections of the SUTTA PITAKA, the largest of the "three baskets" of early Buddhist texts. Hearing this brief discourse, the five previous companions, who were at first skeptical of Buddha's new claims, were convinced and became the first five "perfected ones" in his order.
Dependent Origination/Conditioned Arising
The cycle of Samsara:
1) Ignorance (PAST CAUSES)
2) Mental Formations (PAST CAUSES)
3) Consciousbess (PRESENT EFFECTS)
4) Mind & Matter (PRESENT EFFECTS)
5) Six Senses (5 + Mind) (PRESENT EFFECTS)
6) Contact (PRESENT EFFECTS)
7) Feeling (PRESENT EFFECTS)
8) Craving (PRESENT CAUSES)
9) Attachment (PRESENT CAUSES)
10) Becoming (PRESENT CAUSES)
11) Birth (FUTURE EFFECTS)
12) Aging & Death (FUTURE EFFECTS)
The legend of the Buddha
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Karuna
"compassion" - Karuṇā is important in all schools of Buddhism. For Theravāda Buddhists, dwelling in karuṇā is a means for attaining a happy present life and heavenly rebirth. For Mahāyāna Buddhists, karuṇā is a co-requisite for becoming a bodhisattva.