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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?
epinephrine
n response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?
decreased insulin secretion
Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?
heart palpitations
Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a “moon face.”
Cushing’s disease
What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?
ADH (vasopressin)
Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.
more localized in action
more rapidly acting
briefer in action
In paracrine communication a chemical signal acts within the tissue that produced it; in endocrine communication the signal reaches the target cells by way of the circulation. Are these two statements true or false?
Both statements are true.
Endocrine cells __________.
contain secretory vesicles
secrete into extracellular fluid
perform intercellular communication
Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?
cortisol
What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?
activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell
After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?
acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?
water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?
activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
what hormone does the thyroid gland secrete
calcitonin
what hormone diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor?
steroid
Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors.
intranuclear
Which of these hormones is not derived from an amino acid?

epinephrine
parathyroid hormone
norepinephrine
thyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone
Peptide hormones ___________.
are composed of amino acids
Which hormone secreted by the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones?
TSH
The release of ACTH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland causes the _______.
adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
Which hormone affects the smooth muscle of the ductus deferens and uterus?
OXT (oxytocin)
Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine (“letdown”) reflex?
oxytocin
Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?
hypothalamus
What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?
negative feedback
The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.
hypothalamus
Which of these hormones exerts a strong effect on adrenal steroid production?
ACTH
Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?
ADH
Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?
elevated oxygen utilization
elevated body temperature
elevated heart rate
Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?
iodine
Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?
thyroid
parathyroid gland regulates?
blood calcium concentration
Which of these statements about the parathyroid gland is false?

A. It is posterior to thyroid.
B. They secrete a peptide hormone.
C. There are usually four glands.
D. The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.
The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.
Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?
increased loss of bone minerals
osteopenia
elevated blood calcium
Which of the following could occur with a hypersecreting tumor of this gland?
Elevation of blood pressure and blood glucose concentration
Excessive secretion by the adrenal medulla can lead to all of these changes except __________

A. drowsiness
B> elevated BP
C. elevated bloog glucose
D. elevate HR
drowsiness
Which of these statements about the pineal gland is false?

It produces melatonin.
It receives inputs from the retina.
It is controlled by adenohypophysis.
It promotes sleep.
It is controlled by adenohypophysis.
The __________ gland secretes melatonin.
pineal
When blood glucose levels are high...
The pancreas releases insulin.
A liver cell responds to insulin by
Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?
liver cells
Body cells that respond to insulin include
Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body
When blood glucose levels are low
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called
homeostasis.
which of the following would activate secretion of a hormone from the pancreas
a fallen the blood glucose concentration
A rise in blood glucose level will trigger all these responses except __________.

storage of glycogen
increased beta cell secretion
storage of triglycerides
increased epinephrine secretion
increased epinephrine secretion
Which of these is not produced by pancreatic islet cells?

A. glucagon
B. digestive enzymes
C. insulin
D. somatosatin
digestive enzymes
Which cells are correctly matched to the hormones they produce?
beta cells; insulin
Which of the following is NOT involved in elevating blood calcium concentration?

A. calcitriol
B. vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
C. calcitonin
D. parathyroid hormone
C. calcitonin
Which of these is not a steroid hormone produced by the gonads?

progesterone
estradiol
cortisol
testosterone
cortisol
Adipose cells produce a hormone called __________ that acts on the brain to reduce food intake.
leptin
Which of these statements about the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome is not true?

The dominant hormone is epinephrine.
It precedes the exhaustion phase.
The dominant hormones are glucocorticoids.
It follows the alarm phase.
The dominant hormone is epinephrine.
Which of these hormones is required for normal growth?
insulin
thyroid hormone
growth hormone
Calcitonin is secreted by which cells?
C cells (parafollicular cells) in the thyroid gland
The sympathetic nervous system directly stimulates which of the following amine hormones?
epinephrine from the adrenal medulla
What hormone causes the loss of sodium and water, thus lowering blood pressure.
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
What amine hormone helps coordinate body activities with the light-dark cycle?
melatonin (it increases during darkness, making you drowsy)
What hormone promotes glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle?
insulin
Where is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesized?
anterior pituitary