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48 Cards in this Set

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6 Requirements for something to be alive...

1. Regulation


2. Growth and development


3. Energy Utilization


4. Response to the environment


5. Evolution


6. Reproduction

Taxonomy

branch of biology that names and classifies species

The 3 domains of life

bacteria (prokaryotic cells)


archaea (prokaryotic cells)


eukarya (eukaryotic cells and everything else)

The 4 Eukarya kingdoms

Plantae


Fungi


Animalia


Protista

Atomic number

number of protons in an element

Mass number

number of protons plus neutrons in an element

Isotope

alternate formats of elements


have same number of protons and electrons


but different number of neutrons

Ions

an atom that has lost or gained electrons and becomes charged

Ionic bonds

formed between oppositely charged ions

Covalent bonds

formed between two atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons

Hydrogen bonds

electrons in the covalent bonds are shared unequally


this gives the molecule polarity (slightly different charges on either end)

Properties of water

Cohesive: molecules stick together, surface tension


Moderates temperature: absorbs large amounts of heat while only changing a few degrees in temperature


Floating ice: ice density is lower than water


Solvent versatility

Acid

a chemical compound that donates H+ ions to solutions

Base

a chemical compound that accepts H+ ions and removes them from a solution

Buffers

substances that resist pH change

4 categories of large molecules

Carbohydrates


Lipids


Proteins


Nucleic Acids

Monosaccharides

simple sugars


glucose, fructose

Disaccharides

double sugars


2 monosaccharides put together


lactose, sucrose

Hydrophilic

dissolve readily in water

Hydrophobic

Do no dissolve in water and avoid it

Polysaccharides

long chains of sugar units


starch, cellulose

Triglyceride

fat


combo of glycerol and 3 fatty acids


used for energy storage, cushioning, insulation

Saturated vs. Unsaturated fatty acids

Saturated: have the max number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons


Unsaturated: have less than the max number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons

Steroids

lipid


carbon skeleton bent to form 4 fused rings


EX: cholesterol, sex hormones

Protein

polymer constructed from amino acid monomers


perform most tasks the body needs to function

Amino acids

central carbon atom bonded to 4 covalent partners


building blocks for protein


all proteins constructed from same 20 amino acids

Peptide bond

amino acids linked together by dehydration reactions

4 structure levels of protein

Primary: sequence of amino acids


Secondary: how the chain bends/folds


Tertiary: how chain continues to bend/fold


Quaternary structure: several polypeptides form one single protein

Denaturation

a protein loses its shape due to poor environmental factors such as temperature and pH

Nucleic Acids

store information


provide directions for building protein


DNA, RNA


polymers of nucleotides

The 4 DNA nucleotide bases

Adenine


Guanine


Thymine


Cytosine

Cell theory

all living things are composed of cells


all cells are formed from previously existing cells

Magnification vs. Resolving power

Magnification: increase in apparent size


Resolving power: ability to show two objects as different from each other

Ribosomes

responsible for making proteins

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

produces a variety of molecules


rough: has ribosomes, produces membrane proteins and new membrane


smooth: produces lipids, steroids, detoxes

Golgi Apparatus

Works with the ER


refines, stores, distributes chemical products of the cell

Lysosomes

membrane-enclosed sac that contains enzymes and break down food

Cytoskeleton

network of fibers/proteins that maintain/change cell shape and provide infrastructure

ATP

adenosine plus a tail of 3 phosphate groups


broken down into ADP to release energy

Enzymes

reduce the amount of activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction

Induced fit

when enzymes fit their very specific shape into the specific empty space on an active site

Hypertonic

higher concentration of solute than water

Hypotonic

higher concentration of water than solute

isotonic solution

equal levels of water and solute

Exocytosis

substances secreted out of the cell

Endocytosis

materials taken into the cell

Phagocytosis

cellular eating

Pinocytosis

cellular drinking