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68 Cards in this Set

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What is the Resource based view argument
people and OB practices can be rare and inimitable. History & wisdom, decisions, socially complex structures (i.e. organizational culture, trust [work environment] ) is not something that can be copied
Does OB matter?
there is no "magic bullet" OB practice
- there is no one thing that in and of itself can increase profitability
- ppl are complex and depends on the context of situation
What are the four methods of how we know something in OB?
method of experience
method of intuition
method of authority
method of science
what is method of experience indicate?
because it's consistent with our experience we know R is true
(not always valid evidence)
describe method of intuition
b/c is "stands to reason" and seems obvious or self evident
describe method of science
bc scientific studies have replicated a result using a variety of samples, settings and methods
under method of science what is evidence based management?
science should guide management education, much like it does for medical education
Are the "methods of how we know something" valid?
they are not always true, but they support Observational Behavior
what is organization behavior(OB)
field of study: devoted to understanding, explaining and improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations. Its not solely for the profit of the organization. its more for moral of employees. its focused on the general psychology of why things happen.
what is human resource management (HMR)
applies OB principles to organizational systems like employee selection and performance appraisal.
strategic Management
focuses on the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization's profitability
where someone fits
what are the primary outcomes studied in OB research
job performance
organizational commitment
what affects job performance and organizational commitment
individual
group
organizational mechanisms
what does casual inference require
1. the two variables are correlated (r)
positive or negative ranging from 0(no relationship) to +or- 1(perfect relationship
2. the presumed cause precedes the presumed effect in time
3. no alternative explanation exists for the r= ruled out all alternate explanations
There needs to be a true experiment :random assignment to manipulated conditions
casual inference is?
perceived unfairness
meta-analysis does?
takes all the "r's" for a given relatioship and calculates an average r, weighted by sample size
what are does the number of an r-value mean
.50=considered strong
.30= moderate
.10=weak
is money the strongest motivator
depends its based on the persons situation and values
preventing conflict will increase productivity (true or false)
depends on the task at hand and the workers motivation and creativity
people who are satisfied with one job tend to be satisfied in other jobs
true personality affects how they view the world
what is job performance? and what are the three things that its based on
the value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment.
1. task performance
2. citizenship behavior
3. counterproductive behavior
what is task performance
behaviors that directly involve in the transformation of resources into the goods or services that the organization produces
what are the two types of task performance. DESCRIBE
routine-well known response to demands that are routine and predictable
2. Adaptive- (adaptability) involves response to task demands that are novel, unusual or predictable.
What is the MARS model
4 major factors that exhibit task performance
what are the 4 major factors that contribute to the MARS model
motivation
ability
role perception
situational factors

you need all 4 to perform well
what are the most common problems with the task performance
motivation and ability

p=ma
how to you increase motivation
tying rewards to performance
fulfilling psychological needs
promoting favorable job attitudes
treating people fairly
setting goals
how do you increase ability
person job matching
selecting qualified people
redesigning the job to match employee ability
training
how to increase role perception
communicating the tasks to perform

providing frequent feedback

providing clear job description
increase situational factors
diagnosing constraints

problem solving to reduce constraints
what are the two types of citizenship behavior
interpersonal

organization
what are the three types of interpersonal citizenship behavior...describe
helping- assisting coworkers

courtesy- keeping coworkers informed about things that are relevant to them makes their life easier

sportmanship- maintaining positive attitude regardless
three types of organizational citizenship
voice-speak up with constructive suggestions.
civic virtue- participation in the companies operations at a deeper then normal level
boosterism-representing orgaization in a positive way when out of work
What is counterproductive behavior?
behaviors that intentionally harm organizational goal accomplishment
What is the primary counterproductive behavior?
cyberloafing
what does the economy lose billion of money to each year?
gambling and porn

ha
what are predictors of citizenship and counterproductive behaviors?
-perceptions of fair & unfair treatment
-affective organizational commitment
-job satisfaction
-conscientiousness & other personality variables
-group norms and the social context
what does low integrity show?
shows an increase in counterproductive behavior
How do job attitudes affect behavior?
-Employees tend to reciprocate the benefits they receive (ppl feel internal sense that if someone does something nice for them, they have to return)
-employees also tend to "settle the score" when they are mistreated (feel obligated to reciprocate)
What is the relationship between job satisfaction and citizenship behavior?
people more satisfied (better mood) have more citizenship and are more likely to help
what are the positive reciprocity norm and negative reciprocity norms that affect of Job attitudes?
pos: you scratch my back, ill scratch yours
neg: eye for an eye, more likely to withdraw from citizenship behavior
What is organizational commitment?
an employee's desire to remain a member of the organization
(predicts turnover intentions and behaivior)
what is withdrawl behavior?
pyschological & physical actions to avoid the work situation (day dreaming and absenteeism)
what are the 3 types of commitment?
affective commitment (want)
continuance commitment (need)
normative commitment (ought to)
what is affective commitment?
a desire to remain due to an emotional attachment to and involvement with the organization
*more likely to do citizenship behavior
What is continuance commitment?
a desire to remain because the costs associated with leaving are high (ex. high embeddedness)
- not always a good thingk (ex. golden handcuffs:keeping ppl who dont want to be there)
What is normative commitment?
a desire to remain due to a feeling of obligation (similar to affective)
In normative commitment why does one feel obliged to stay?
1) reciprocity
2) values and beliefs
ex.if you hire him, then he owes it to the company to do his best
What is affective commitment associated with?
indicates less turnover, more citizenship behavior and greater identification with the organization (becoming one)
what does affective commitment foster?
-perceived fairness and trust
-perceived organization support:feeling valued and cared for by the organization
-organization comprehension-being connected to events and people and understanding the company & its future
what has a big effect on affect commitment?
when lay offs occur AC goes down
What affects overall job satisfaction?
it is a collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job
-supervisor
-promotion
-co workers
-pay and benefits
- work itself
what is the # 1 driver of job satisfaction?
work itself
What do many people assume is the #1 driver of job satisfaction?
pay & benefits
what does job satisfaction represent?
how you feel and what your think about your job
What are the 4 responses to dissatisfaction (withdrawal)?
EVLN
Exit
Voice
Loyalty
Neglect
What does Exit indication in the response to dissatisfaction?
-leaving the situation; withdrawal
-quitting, transferring
What does Voice indicate in the ELVN response to dissatisfaction?
-attempt to change the situation
-problem solving, grievances
what does Loyalty EVLN response to dissatisfaction indicate?
-patiently waiting for the situation to improve
What does Neglect EVLN response to job dissatisfaction indicate?
-reducing work effort/quality
-increasing absenteeism
What are the 4 types of employees?
Stars
Citizens
Lone Wolves
Apathetics
Describe a STAR employee and do they respond to dissatisfaction
high commitment and high performance
-role models for other employees
-tend to respond to negative events with voice
(care abt the place and want to change it since they are prob. on good terms with boss and can change it)
Describe a CITIZEN employee and how they respond to dissatisfaction.
high commitment and low performance
-perform "extra-role" activities that are needed to make the organization function smoothly
-tend to respond to negative events with loyalty
Describe a LONE WOLF employee and how they respond to dissatisfaction.
low commitment and high performance
-motivated to achieve goals for themselves not necessarily for their company
-tend to respond to negative events with exit
Describe APATHETICS and how they respond to dissatisfaction.
low commitment and performance
-exert the minimum level of effort needed to keep their jobs
-tend to respond to negative events with neglect
Are happy workers more productive workers?
higher job satisfaction relates to better task performance, but not strongly (ie. r=0.25)
why isn't the relationship between job satisfaction and task performance in happy workers stronger?
-general attitudes are poor predictors of specific behaviors (ie.EVLN suggests multiple responses to dissatisfaction)
-Weak reverse causality effects: Job performance affects satisfaction when performance is rewarded (usually not done well, would see stronger correlation if done well)
-job satisfaction has little effect on task-based motivation in jobs with little employee control
When does happy workers create more productive workers?
-when "happy" includes higher job satisfaction, affective commitment, and perceived fairness
-when "productive" includes better task performance, more citizenship behavior and less counterproductive behavior