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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which are true regarding modern swine facilities?
a) all-in/all-out is infrequently practiced
b) farrow-to-finish is the most common management practice
c) disease is a necessary cost of production
d) weight gain per day target is 1.7lbs/day
c) disease is a necessary cost of production
d) weight gain per day target is 1.7lbs/day
(most modern are all-in/all-out and small farms may still be farrow-to-finish)
Fill in the following normals for pigs:
Resp rate
Pulse rate
Temp - 102 F
Resp rate - 13-15 sows/20-30 growers
Pulse rate - 70-80 adults
Which amino acids are necessary and rate-limiting in swine?
Lysine and methionine
Exudative dermatitis or ____________ is caused by the bacterium ______________ and usually starts on _________________.
Staph hyicus
Starts on snout/ears, spreads to inner thighs/abdomen and entire body
How is greasy pig disease treated?
Pig, Penicillin, Piss off!
What are two differentials for circular collarette lesions on the ventrum of pigs? How is the MOST LIKELY differential treated?
Pityriasis rosea (benign neglect)
Thick crusting on extremities in young (not newborn) pigs is known as___________ and caused by ______________.
Parakaratosis caused by Zn deficiency
Pustular to ulcerative lesions on the skin of the pig is likely...
What are the vesicular disease of swine and which viruses cause each?
FMD (aphtovirus from picornaviridae)
VS (vesiculovirus from rhabdoviridae)
Swine vesicular dz (enterovirus from picornaviridae)
Vesicular exanthema of swine (vesivirus from caliciviridae)
An adult pig with hemorrhagic skin lesions and a fever may also have pathology in what systems? What is the pathogen?
Endocarditis and joint dz
d/t Erysipelas rhusiopathiae (diamond skin disease)
What's going on in this piggy?
cyanosis change w/endotoxemia
A VERY sick pig with lesions on its dorsum probably has what condition? What is the cause of this?
Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome
d/t circovirus (maybe?)
How can you tell Pityriasis rosea from Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome?
PDNS pigs are SICK SICK SICK and have lesions more on the dorsum
What are the 2 most common disease categories (by system) of swine?
Respiratory and GI dz
What are common causes of viral diarrhea in neonates? Bacterial diarrhea?
Corona/Rotavirus; also TGE (viral)
E. coli, Clostridium (bacterial)
(RARELY Salmonella)
What are 2 good differentials for a dead neonatal pig with hemorrhagic loops of bowel? How can you discern the real cause?
Clostridium perfringens (type C)
Mesenteric torsion
(blood culture for Clostridium and demonstrate toxins)
If you see a neonate with edematous spiral colon, what is your top differential?
C. difficile (spiral colon fibrinous colitis)
Top differential for a pig that is vomiting AND has diarrhea?
Transmissible Gastro Enteritis Virus
(also maybe mycotoxins)
If you see a neonate < 2d with diarrhea, what is your first differential?
Neonatal enteric colibacillosis (E. coli diarrhea)
Which bacteria cause neonatal enteric colibacillosis in neonatal pigs?
E. coli K88, 987P (K99 and F41 less often)
How can neonatal enteric colibacillosis be diagnosed?
Demonstration of attachment pili (PCR, latex agglutination)
Histopath showing bacteria on brush border
An underdiagnosed problem of 7-15d piglets is...
...coccidiosis (I. suis)
How is coccidiosis diagnosed in piglets? How is it treated?
Dx (ileal scrapings on necropsy)
Tx (Toltrazuril treatments - doesn't help those showing clinical signs)
What are some good sites for venipuncture in pigs?
Anterior vena cava
Orbital sinus
Ear/Tail veins
Where should IM injections be given in pigs? SQ injections?
IM (neckmeat)
SQ (loose skin behind shoulder)
Which of the following are NOT approved for use in food pigs?
a) banamine
b) ketamine
c) xylazine
d) isoflurane
b) ketamine
c) xylazine
d) isoflurane
What are some signs of endotoxemia in post-weaners?
Cyanosis of belly
Ear tip necrosis
GI infarcts
What causes post-weaning colibacillosis?
E. coli (K88); O141, 147, 149, and 157
Edema disease is due to...
E. coli (F18 & shiga toxin); O138, 139, 141, etc)
T or F:
Most cases of E. coli enterotoxemia are not diarrheaic.
T or F:
Most cases of enterotoxigenic E. coli are not diarrheaic.
False! These cause secretory diarrhea!
How can post-weaning colibacillosis be treated?
Reduce feed amount
What are some necropsy findings in pigs with salmonelllosis?
Hepatic infarcts
Turkey-egg kidney
Button ulcers in GI
What is your top differential for a weaner with bloody scours?
(maybe swine dysentery)
Which of the following are mainly found in the large intestine in pigs with GI dz?
a) Salmonella
b) Lawsonia intracellularis
c) Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
d) Brachyspira pilosicoli
a) Salmonella
c) Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
d) Brachyspira pilosicoli
What can be used as a preventive against salmonellosis? How is it given?
Carbadox in feed
What are the 3 main types of salmonella causing issues in the US?
S. cholerasuis
S. typhisuis
S. typhimurium
What are the 3 forms of ileitis caused by Lawsonia intracellularis?
Proliferative, Necrotic, and Hemorrhagic ileitis
How can porcine proliferative ileitis be diagnosed?
a) fecal culture
b) fecal PCR
c) ileal scraping + culture
d) silver stain on histopath
e) histopath shows organisms on brush border
b) fecal PCR
d) silver stain on histopath
(can also do tissue PCR)
Swine dysentery is caused by __________ and is found ONLY in the ____________.
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae; only in the large intestine
How can swine dysentery be diagnosed?
a) fecal culture
b) fecal PCR
c) colon scraping + culture
d) silver stain on histopath
e) histopath shows organisms on brush border
b) fecal PCR
d) silver stain on histopath
How can swine dysentery be treated?
Macrolide abx (tylosin, tymulin, lincomycin)
Good hygiene!
T or F:
Both Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli can be successfully eradicated from pig production farms.
B. hyodysenteriae can since pigs are its only host!
The major helminth affecting most swine productions is...
...Ascaris suum
What are possible culprits contributing to gastric ulcers in swine?
Fine-ground feed
Which emerging infectious disease can also cause diarrhea in swine or hogs?
Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)
What are the major reproductive vaccines and when should they be given?
Parvo, Lepto, +/- PRRS; give before breeding and after litter is weaned
The MINIMUM herd vaccination family should include...
...Parvo, Lepto, Erysipelas
When are piglets usually vaccinated?
@ 3 wks (except for enzootic pneumonias - 1 wk)
Which are causes of congenital tremor or myoclonia congenita in preweaned pigs?
a) hypomyelination or demyelination
b) pseudorabies virus
c) leptospira
d) circovirus type 1
a) hypomyelination or demyelination (describes the pathogenesis)
d) circovirus type 1
(also CSF; most are idiopathic though)
What are some viral causes of porcine CNS diseases?
CSF and Pseudorabies; also various encephalomyelitis viruses
Which of the following are NOT true regarding Streptococcus suis infections in young pigs?
a) zoonotic
b) occurs in piglets from 2-12 days old
c) serotypes 3 and 4 are most common
d) can survive short-term in macrophages
b) occurs in piglets from 2-12 days old (its 2-12 WEEKS)
c) serotypes 3 and 4 are most common (its serotypes 1 AND 2)
Streptococcus suis infection is an important differential for which cardiovascular disease in pigs?
Mulberry heart disease; also Glasser's Dz I guess...
Which of the following diseases is associated with S. suis infection?
a) Mulberry heart disease
b) Suppurative meningitis
c) Glasser's disease
d) Vegetative endocarditis
e) Fibrinous polyserositis
b) Suppurative meningitis
d) Vegetative endocarditis
e) Fibrinous polyserositis
How can a strept infection usually be cleared?
Penicillin (maybe Ceftiofur)
What are some causes of bacterial meningoencephalitis in young swine?
H. parasuis
S. suis II
An OUTBREAK of hind-end paresis in swine makes you think of...
...Se toxicosis
What are some clinical signs of edema disease? What is the pathognomic sign on necropsy?
Funny sounding squeal
Ataxia; recumbency
Puffy eyelid/snout
Edema of spiral colon and greater curvature of stomach on necropsy.
Pigs circling around one leg, convulsing, head pressing, & etc makes you think of...
...Salt toxicity!