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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the approximate specific gravity of plasma?
1.007 to 1.017
T or F:
Isothenuria alone is pathologic.
It is NOT pathologic by itself
Where is most of the ultrafiltrate reabsorbed?
a) Bowman's Capsule
b) PCT
c) Loop of Henle
d) DCT
e) Macula Densa
b) PCT
What materials are secreted by the kidney tubules?
H+, NH3, and K+
What is the most common cause of hypernatremia?
A(n) _______________ of Na+ concentration stimulates the release of ADH.
increased Na+ stimulates ADH release
Increased BUN or Creatinine =
T or F:
If BUN is increased but not Creatinine, this is not azotemia.
False! It's still azotemia!
Choose pre, post, or renal azotemia...
...concentrated urine specific gravity.
Pre and post renal azotemia
Choose pre, post, or renal azotemia...
...associated with obstructed outflow.
Post renal
Choose pre, post, or renal azotemia...
...associated with decreased GFR due to decreased perfusion.
Pre-renal azotemia
(GFR is also reduced in renal due to kidney disease and in post renal due to obstruction)
Choose pre, post, or renal azotemia...
...isothenuric specific gravity.
Renal azotemia
T or F:
Decreased GFR can be due to issues pre-renal, post-renal, or within the kidney.
Decreased perfusion, renal disease, or obstruction can cause decreased GFR
Are GFR and BUN directly or inversely proportional?
Inversely (low GFR = high BUN)
BUN doesn't increase until _____ of kidney function is lost. Kidney concentration ability is not lost until ________ of kidney function is lost.
3/4 kidney fxn --> increased BUN
2/3 kidney fxn --> can't concentrate
Which has better urine concentrating ability, cats or dogs?
T or F:
Cats can have high BUN and still concentrate urine.
What are some causes of increased BUN but normal Creatinine?
High protein diet
Digested blood (GI bleeding)
What are some causes of decreased BUN?
Low protein diet
Liver failure
Why is BUN not a sensitive indicator of renal function in bovids?
Urea is used in the rumen for protein syntheisis
Are GFR and Creatinine inversely or directly proportional?
T or F:
An increase in BUN but not creatinine indicates a decreased GFR.
This shows that the issue is not GFR related
Choose BUN, Creatinine, or Inulin...
...consistent on a daily basis for a given animal.
Choose BUN, Creatinine, or Inulin...
...ONLY affected by GFR in renal clearance.
Choose BUN, Creatinine, or Inulin...
...muscle mass impacts values.
Choose BUN, Creatinine, or Inulin...
...low GFR causes increase.
BUN, Creatinine
Choose BUN, Creatinine, or Inulin...
...the "gold standard" for GFR evaluation.
Which test helps to determine the cause of decreased GFR?
Urine Specific Gravity
What SG range constitutes isothenuria?
1.007 to 1.017
High SG, high BUN and high Creatinine = which type of azotemia?
High BUN, Creatinine, and isothenuria = which type of azotemia?
Renal azotemia
Which test challenges the kidneys ability to concentrate urine?
Water deprivation test
What are the four "stop points" for the water deprivation test?
1) Azotemia occurs
2) USG is 1.03 or 1.035 (cats)
3) 5% body wt. is lost
4) clinical dehydration occurs
What are the two non-renal failure possibilities describing a lack of USG increase in a water deprivation test?
Primary (pituitary) D. insipidus;
Nephrogenic D. insipidus
Which test differentiates the types of diabetes insipidus? What would the results of this test be in an animal with nephrogenic D. insipidus?
ADH response test;
Would have no response in nephrogenic D. insipidus
Which test measures electrolyte clearance?
Fractional excretion
T or F:
Increased fractional excretion denotes tubular failure.
Which of the following are common lab abnormalities in canine renal disease?
a) non-regenerative anemia
b) Hypophosphatemia
c) hypokalemia
d) secretional metabolic acidosis
e) increased amylase
a) non-regenerative anemia
b) Hypophosphatemia (NO - in horses maybe)
c) hypokalemia
d) secretional metabolic acidosis (NO - titrational though)
e) increased amylase
What type of crystals may be seen in EG toxicity? Which one is the bad one?
Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate; monohydrate is BAD NEWS
Of the following signs, which is associated with chronic or acute (or both) renal failure?
a) PU/PD
b) anuria/oliguria
c) azotemia
d) isothenuria
e) anemia
a) PU/PD (chronic)
b) anuria/oliguria (acute)
c) azotemia (both)
d) isothenuria (both)
e) anemia (chronic)
Which method of urine collection is best for culturing bacteria?
What does cloudy urine indicate?
Formed elements (cells, casts, crystals, bacteria)
What tests can be performed using a urine dipstick that are of veterinary importance? (hint - there are 6)
pH, ketones, glucose, bilirubin, blood, protein
What can cause false negative glucose values in a dipstick urine test?
Ascorbic acid (vit C)
T or F:
Bilirubinuria is always significant in cats.
True! Indicative of cholestasis or hemolysis
What are some causes of ketonuria?
Starvation, B-cell tumor, diabetic ketoacidosis, high fat/low carb diet, persistent hypoglycemia
T or F:
Ketonuria is only detectable after ketonemia has exceeded the urinary threshold.
False! Ketonuria is often detected before ketonemia.
What is the most common cause of bilirubinuria?
What three things can show a positive blood test in a urinalysis dipstick?
Free hemoglobin,
Free myoblobin,
Which proteins will urinalysis dipsticks not commonly detect?
Bence-Jones Proteins
Which test is used to semi-quantify proteinuria?
Sulfosalycylic Acid Precipitation test
What are some common reasons for proteinuria?
What test is used when there is no obvious explanation for proteinuria? How is this test interpreted?
(ratio >1 = significant protein loss)
What can cause false protein positives in a urinalysis dipstick?
high pH
How many RBCs per high-power field are normal in a urinalysis? What is unique about the RBC morphology in urine?
up to 5/hpf;
RBCs are crenated
How many WBCs per high-power field are normal in a urinalysis? What is it called when this level is exceeded?
up to 5/hpf; greater than this = pyuria
Name these cells found in a urinalysis? Which is common in a free-catch sample?
A - Squamous cell (common in free catch)
B- Transitional
T or F:
In a urine sample, rod bacteria are easier to see than cocci.
What two conditions should accompany the findings of bacteria in the urine?
What do you think if you see fungal hyphae in urine?
Name that urine sediment!
Capillarria plica
T or F:
Crystals in the urine generally implies urinary stones.
Name that urine sediment! In which species are these most common?
Struvite crystals (MgNH4PO4); common in dogs
What crystal is indicated by A? By B? In which species are these common?
Both are CaCO3 crystals; common in horses
What crystal is indicated by A? By B? What is associated with A?
A - Ca-oxalate monohydrate (EG poisoning)
B - Ca-oxalate dihydrate
Which urine crystals have no clinical significance?
Which urine crystals are associated with alkaline urine?
Struvite (neutral/alkaline)
Ammonium biurate (acid to alkaline)
Ca-oxalate (acid to alkaline)
Name these crystals! What disease(s) are associated with these?
Ammonium biurate;
Assoc w/hepatic dz (portosystemic shunt)
Name that crystal! What causes this?
Bilirubin crystal;
Same causes as bilirubinuria
How many casts may be seen in normal concentrated urine?
1-2 per lpf
Which type of cast is the worst:
a) hyaline cast
b) waxy cast
c) granular cast
d) erythrocyte cast
Waxy is worst --> it is advanced stage of granular cast (indicates chronic tubular degeneration)