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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Q: Neurofibrillary tangles and senile Beta-amyloid plaques in elderly patients
A: Alzheimer disease (associated with mutations on chromosomes 21, 19, 14, and 1)
Q: Common neurodegenerative diseases with dementia
A: Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease, and Pick disease
Q: Degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons of the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts
A: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - may be associated with mutations of superoxide dismutase
Q: Most common cause of cerebral embolic infarcts
A: Cerebral atherosclerosis (most common location is the middle cerebral artery)
Q: Changes in memory and behavior followed by rapid dementia and startle myoclonus
A: Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (histologically characterized by spongiform change; transmission via prion protein)
Q: Rupture of middle meningeal artery because of skull fracture
A: Epidural hematoma (can be rapidly fatal)
Q: Most common primary intracranial neoplasm
A: Glioblastoma multiforme (as opposed to the most common intracranial neoplasm overall which is metastases to the brain)
Q: Pseudopalisading arrangement of malignant nuclei
A: Glioblastoma multiforme
Q: Patients present with involuntary jerky movements or writhing of the extremities
A: Huntington disease (autosomal dominant disease associated with trinucleotide repeat expansions)
Q: Atrophy of the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus
A: Huntington disease (caudate atrophy leads to "bat wing" lateral ventricles)
Q: Most common cause of primary brain parenchymal hemorrhage
A: Hypertension
Q: One of the most common intracranial tumors in children
A: Medulloblastoma
Q: Tumor pushes on (rather than infiltrates) adjacent parenchyma
A: Meningioma (slow growing and often surgically resectable)
Q: Charcot triad: nystagmus, intention tumor, and scanning speech
A: Multiple sclerosis (in a gross specimen, glassy, dirty tan periventricular plaques indicate demyelination in white matter)
Q: Associated with folate deficiency during the initial weeks of gestation
A: Neural tube defects (Alpha-fetoprotein level is elevated in maternal serum)
Q: Multiple neurofibromas on the skin, cafe au lait spots, and Lisch nodules (pigmented hamartomas on the iris)
A: Neurofibromatosis Type-1 (von Recklinghausen disease) - autosomal dominant mutation in the NF-1 gene
Q: Rigid expressionless face and a pill-rolling tremor
A: Parkinson disease
Q: Atrophy and gross depigmentation of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus
A: Parkinson disease (histologically characterized by Lewy bodies which are intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions within neurons)
Q: Spinal tap with numerous leukocytes, decreased glucose and increased protein
A: Pyogenic (bacterial) meningitis
Q: Most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage
A: Rupture of a berry aneurysm (most common location of berry aneurysms is the Circle of Willis)
Q: Intracranial tumor presenting with tinnitus and hearing loss
A: Schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - involves CN VII and VIII at the cerebellopontine angle
Q: "Worst headache of my life", vomiting, loss of consciousness, and blood in the CSF
A: Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Q: Intracranial hemorrhage due to disruption of the bridging veins
A: Subdural hematoma
Q: Loss of pain and temperature sensation in the upper extremities
A: Syringomyelia
Q: Weakness, paresthesia, and "pins-and-needles" feeling
A: Vitamin B12 deficiency (affects the lateral and posterior columns)
Q: Hemorrhage into the mammillary bodies and dorsal medial gray matter around the cerebral aqueducts
A: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Q: Confusion, paralysis of the lateral rectus, and ataxia with memory loss and confabulation
A: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (caused by thiamine deficiency, typically in alcoholics)