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25 Cards in this Set

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Q: Most common cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm
A: Atherosclerosis (often associated with mutation in LDL receptor in familial hyperchloesterolemia)
Q: Sudden onset of excruciating substernal pain, often confused with myocardial infarction
A: Dissecting aortic aneurysm (caused by cystic medial necrosis, more common in Marfan syndrome)
Q: Vasculitis of the elderly, presenting as headache, facial pain, and/or impaired vision
A: Giant cell (temporal) arteritis (most common vasculitis, affecting branches of the carotid artery)
Q: Vast majority of cases are idiopathic, although they may be secondary to renal disease
A: Hypertension (other secondary causes include primary hyperaldosteronism, Cushing syndrome, and pheochromocytoma)
Q: Rapidly precipitating hypertension in an African American male with papilledema and retinal hemorrhages
A: Malignant hypertension (histologically characterized by hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis or "onion-skin" thickening of arterial walls)
Q: Pallor or cyanosis of fingers and toes caused by recurrent vasospasm of arterioles, often in young, healthy women
A: Raynaud disease (reaction to cold or emotion)
Q: Vasculitis primarily affecting the tibial and radial arteries
A: Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease) - associated with cigarette smoking
Q: Concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle
A: Aortic stenosis or Hypertensive heart disease (occurs in response to left ventricular pressure overload)
Q: Congenital abnormality predisposing to calcify aortic stenosis
A: Bicuspid aortic valve
Q: Right heart failure due to intrinsic lung disease or primary disease of pulmonary vasculature
A: Chronic cor pulmonale
Q: Upper extremity hypertension with lower extremity hypotension
A: Coarctation of the aorta (postductal) - can radiologically detect notching of the ribs caused by enlargement of intercostal and internal mammary arteries
Q: Associated with cocaine abuse, alcohol abuse, and pregnancy; can also be idiopathic
A: Dilated cardiomyopathy (heart may be 3 times heavier than normal with dilation of all four chambers)
Q: Haphazard disarray of cardiac myofibrils
A: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (autosomal dominant mutation in the myosin heavy chain gene)
Q: Bulky, friable, nonsterile vegetations with the potential to embolize
A: Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (often caused by Strep viridans infection of mitral valve, or Staph aureus infection of tricuspid valve in IV drug users)
Q: Dyspnea, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea caused by congestion of the lungs
A: Left heart failure
Q: Midsystolic click followed by a late systolic murmur
A: Mitral valve prolapse (most common valvular heart disease in the U.S., especially in young women; also associated with Marfan syndrome)
Q: Crushing or squeezing, substernal pain radiating down the left arm
A: Myocardial infarction (serum findings include elevated cardiac Troponins, CK-MB, and LDH)
Q: Causes include Coxsackie viruses A and B and Trypanosoma cruzi
A: Myocarditis
Q: Ball valve obstruction by left atrial mass
A: Myxoma (most common primary tumor of the heart in adults)
Q: Friable, sterile emboli caused by hypercoagulable states
A: Nonbacterial thrombotic (marantic) endocarditis (associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and adenocarcinoma of the pancreas)
Q: Harsh waxing and waning murmur (machinery murmur)
A: Patent ductus arteriosus (closed with indomethacin administration, which decreases prostaglandin E levels)
Q: Friction rub
A: Pericarditis (causes include infections, rheumatic fever, myocardial infarction and uremia)
Q: Associated with cardiac amyloidosis, radiation injury, and sarcoidosis
A: Restrictive cardiomyopathy (manifests as decreased ventricular filling owing to reducing ventricular compliance)
Q: Migratory polyarthritis, erythema marginatum, subcutaneous nodules, Sydenham chorea, and pancarditis
A: Rheumatic Fever (Aschoff bodies in the myocardium are pathognomonic)
Q: Sequela of acute rheumatic fever
A: Rheumatic heart disease (fish mouth deformity from fusion of commissures; most common is mitral stenosis and then finally next most common is mitral and aortic stenosis)