• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Front

## Card Range To Study

through

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

### 45 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 unit of energy 1 J = 1 J = 1 kg(m/s)^2 unit of energy 1 calorie = 4.184 J (∆T) = (∆H) = (∆E) = Change in Temperature, Heat, Energy = (Final - Initial) Exothermic helpers - ; Gives off heat; releases heat; adding heat; hot; reacts Endothermic helpers + ; Removing heat; absorbs heat; takes in heat; cold; decomposes; dissolving in water is always endo kinetic energy formula = Ek = 1/2 mv^2 m = mass = kg v = velocity = m/s kinetic energy question example Calculate the kinetic energy in Joules of a 1200 kg automobilie moving at 18 m/s. Convert energy from Joules to calories.; use kinetic energy formula and calorie to Joule conversion internal energy formula answer in Joule; (∆E) = q + w q = heat, w = work q helpers + means system gains heat; - means system loses heat w helpers + means work done on system - means work done by system - w quote "if system works on the surrounding..." + work quote "if the surrounding works on the system..." ∆E helpers + means net gain of energy by system; decompose - means net loss of energy by system; reacts internal energy questions example Calculate the ∆E of the system and determine whether the process is endothermic or exothermic. A balloon is cooled by removing .655 kJ of heat. It shrinks on cooling and the atmosphere (surrounding) does 382 J of work on the balloon (system). enthalpies of reaction question example 4 step problem; endo or exo; calculate heat transferred when g is decomposed; given a reaction, ∆H during reaction is kJ. How many grams of product produced; how many J heat released when g reacts w/O2 at constant pressure Conversion clue if question as for a conversion, ∆ mol to mol; if no conversion is asked, use mols from equation when reactions reverses, you must... switch the sign given for ∆H first law of thermodynamics energy is conserved; not created or destroyed; any energy lost by a system is gained by surroundings, and vice versa Hess's Law states that if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ∆H for the overall reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps enthalpy a thermodynamic function; means to warm; accounts for heat flow in processes occurring at constant pressure; the change equals the heat gained or lost at constant pressure basis of Hess's Law We can calculate for any process, as long as we find the route; used for more difficult processes to measure Hess's Law helpers must multiply/divide both process and ∆H before cancellations; same side add, opposite side cancels; if process reverses, must switch ∆H sign calorimetry formula Heat = mass x specific heat x ∆T q = kg x c x ∆T specific heat = (rule) = heat/massx∆T = J / g℃ calorimetry question example specific heat of ethylene glycol is 2.42 J/gK. How many J of heat are needed to raise the temp. of 62.0 g of ethylene glycol from 31.1 ℃ to 40.5 ℃. calorimetry rule never convert ℃ to K and vice versa; always equal specific heat of water (l) indicates the amount of heat that must be added to 1 gram of a substance to raise its temperature by 1 K (or 1 ℃); at 14.5-15.5℃ is 4.184 J/ g-K molar heat capacity of water (l) heat capacity of one mole of a substance specific heat = q / m x change T= J / g x degree C -can rearrange to form new formuula relating heat, temp change and heat capacity change in H(f rxn) = change in H(f product) - change in H(f reactant) = in kJ Hf = heat of formation, rxn = reaction, small o = standard enthalpy and not degree use values for Hf in kJ/mol given by appendix C c = lambda x v Light as a wave: c = speed of light = 3.0 x 10^8 m/s, lambda = wavelength in meters, v = frequency in s^-1 or 1/s; (can be rearranged) E = hv light as a particle (photon): E = energy of photon in J, h = Plank's constant (6.626 x 10^-34 J-s, v = frequency in s^-1 or 1/s; (can be rearranged) lambda = h/mv matter as a wave: lambda = wavelength, h = Plank's constant, m = mass of object in kg; v - speed of object in m/s change in x = change (mv) >= h/4pie Heisenberg's uncertainty principle; the uncertainty in position (change in x) and momentum (change in mv) of an object cannot be zero; the smallest value of their product is h/4pie Max Plank gave the name quantum (meaning 'fixed amount') to teh smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as whole numbers of electromagnetic radiation; proposed E=hv; Albert Einstein used Plank's theory to explain the photoelectric effect; E=hv; when radiant energy strikes a metal surface, it behaves as a stream of tiny energy packets called photons Bohr - 3 postulates proposed a model of the hydrogen atom that explains the line spectrum 1. only orbits of certain radii, are permitted for the electron in an H atom; 2, an electron in a permitted orbit has a specific energy and is in an "allowed' energy state; 3. energy is emitted or absorbed as a photon Johann Balmer showed wavelengths of four visible lines of hydrogen on spectra in a formula that related the wavelength of visible line spectrum to integers; extended to Rydberg's equation Rydberg's equation 1/lambda = Rh(1/n squared,1 - 1/n squared,2); n2 is larger than n1 Rh is constant = 1.096776 x 10^7 m^-1 Rutherford discovered the nuclear nature of the atom Bohr's formula E = (-hcRh)(1/n squared) = -2.18 x 10^-18 J(1/n squared); and he gave us orbits Louis de Broglie proposed wavelength of the electron depons on mass and its velocity; lambda = h/mv Pauli's excursion principle states no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n, l, m l, m s; and the orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy, with no more than two electrons per orbital Schrodinger wave equation; his work opened a new way of dealing with subatomic particles; quantum mechanics or wave mechanics; also gave us orbitals Hund's rule for degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximised