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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why can't an infant control defecation?
lack of neuromuscular development
An older client's change in digestion and absorption is due to what body systems?
cardiovascular and neurological
Older adults have trouble controlling bowel evacuations because of muscle loss in what areas?
perineal floor and anal sphincter
Aside from a loss of muscle tone, what are two reasons for older adults to loose control of bowels?
slowing of nerve impulses and less aware of need to defecate
What food help to evacuate wastes and fat from bowels?
bulk forming foods - whole grains, fresh fruit and veggies
What types of food stimulate peristalsis?
gas producing - onions, cauliflower, and beans
How many glasses of fluid does an adult need to drink a day?
What does fruit juice do to stool and peristalsis
softens stool and increases peristalsis
Does physical activity promote or depress peristalsis?
Does stress accelerate or slow down peristalsis?
Does depression accelerate or slow down peristalsis?
slow down
what is the normal position for defecation?
Does pregnancy increase or decrease peristalsis?
decrease (3rd trimester)
What is the difference between inhaled anesthetics and local/regional anesthesia?
inhaled slow peristalsis, local/regional doesn't affect
Which is more mild, cathartics or laxatives?
What is the valsalva maneuver?
holding your breath to push
What is transit time?
time medication stays in the GI tract for absorption
When do you suspect impaction?
continuous oozing of diarrhea stool occurs
What are some signs and symptoms of impaction?
loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention and cramping, rectal pain
Why is fecal incontinence dangerous?
contamination and skin ulceration
Antibiotics could cause what type of bowel elimination problem?
What type of bacteria can cause diarrhea?
Clostridium difficile
What are the two ways of getting C difficilie?
factors that cause overgrowth and contact with the organism
What does ELISA test for?
C difficile
How many stool specimens are needed for an ELISA test?
What are hemorrhoids?
dilated, engorged veins in the lining of the rectum
What type of ostomy bypasses the entire large intestine?
What type of ostomy is performed during an emergency?
loop colostomy
There are two parts to a loop colostomy. What does the proximal and distal ends drain?
proximal: stool
distal: mucus
Why do many people get end colostomies?
surgical treatment of colorectal cancer
What psychological care can nurses give to ostomy patients?
provide emotional support pre and postoperatively
What types of sounds do you hear with abdominal distention?
increase in pitch or a tinkling sound
When handling stool specimens do you need to wear sterile or clean gloves?
Can the client obtain a stool specimen?
yes, if properly instructed
If you are having a test measuring fecal fat how much of a collection do you need?
3-5 days worth
What types of food can give a false positive for a FOBT?
red meat, poultry, fish, some raw veggies
What types of medications can cause false positives for a FOBT?
vitamin C, aspirin, and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs
What is the function of the incontinence guidelines?
assist in protecting the client's skin, promoting continence, and reducing the embarrassment associated with incontinence
What is one of the most important habits to teach regarding bowel habits?
take time for defecation
When planning times for treatment, what is one thing you must take into account?
the client's bowel elimination routine
True or False:
In order to help, lift a patient onto a bedpan.
What has a stronger affect on the intestine, laxative or cathartics?
What is an enema?
the instillation of a solution into the rectum and sigmoid colon
What type of enemas should children receive?
normal saline
Why can children only receive normal saline enemas?
the are at risk for fluid imbalance
What type of enema is contraindicated in clients who are dehydrated and young infants?
hypertonic solutions
What type of soap is to be used with a soapsuds enema?
pure castile soap
What is significant of a high enema?
cleanse the entire colon
After administering a high enema what should you tell the patient to do?
turn from the left lateral to the dorsal recumbent, over to the right lateral position
How much of the colon does a low enema cleans?
rectum and sigmoid colon
How long should a patient hold an oil retention enema?
several hours if possible
What type of enema provides relief from gaseous distention?
What is a Kayexalate enema used to treat?
high serum K+ levels
What is a sodium polystyrene sulfonate enema used to treat?
high serum K+ levels
What is a neomycin solution enema used for?
reduce bacteria in the colon before bowel surgery
What does "enema till clear" mean?
enema is repeated until the client passes fluid that is clear and contains no fecal material
If the vagus nerve is stimulated, what happens?
heart rate slows
What do you need in order to remove a fecal impaction?
doctor's order
When giving an enema, what is the position?
left side-lying sims
When do you initiate ostomy care and bowel retraining?
acute care
What should the patient with frequent constipation or impaction be required to eat?
high-fiber foods and more fluids
What should the client with frequent diarrhea should be required to eat?
low fiber foods
If a patient has hemorrhoids, what should be applied to relieve pain?
What is something that can be done after a patient has a lack of continence?
bathe the affected area
What is the caution with bathing an area after the patient has had a lack of bowel continence?
sometimes it results in more breakdown unless the client dries the skin thoroughly
What is the greatest danger from diarrhea?
development of fluid and electrolyte imbalance
What is the ultimate goal when a patient is admitted for a bowl problem?
the client will be able to have regular, pain-free defecation of soft-formed stools