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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Bordeaux History

- The dutch built drainage canals mid 1600's

now suitable for wine

- Rise of bordeaux: proximity to ocean

- englishmen's love for claret


buy fruit or wine and barrels.

cellar then sell


Financial backing for Chateaux

gained control of trade

still in charge of en primeur


estate under single ownership

Bordeaux climate

maritime climate

Girande estuary protects from winter freeze/

spring frost

more continental towards Pomeral/ St Emilion

Bordeaux climate worries

-rain during harvest

-wet spring= rot

-autumn humidity= good sweet wine

-spring frost= coulure, millerandage-reduce yield

Bordeaux Mixture

lime, copper sulfate, water... avoid fungus

Bordeaux AOP

base level... anywhere in Bordeaux


used because of different ripening times and soils

Cabernet Sauvignon

- Adds structure, power longevity

- well drained gravel

- roots dig deep

- water stress adds to fruit


- Most widely planted grape

- earliest grape to rien

- Fleshy, juicy texture

- softens austere Cab Sauv

- clay-soil.. delays natural vigor

Cabernet Franc

- limestone based

- more tannic than merlot/ less muscle than cab

- adds herbal spice, exotic perfume

- promotes acidity, freshness

- skeleton of wines

Petit Verdot

- left bank

- adds color, depth, exotic perfume

White wines of Bordeaux

- Sauvignon Blanc, Semillion, Muscadelle

- Ugni Blanc, Merlot blanc, Colombard <30%

Sauvignon Blanc in Bordeaux

- pungency, higher acidity, citrus

- leavened with Semillion

- rounded with oak

- best achieve= creamy, waxy texture.. honey


Medoc AOP

-Left Bank

-50 mil stretch north of bordeaux

-AOP must be red

-123 acres planted white

- north medoc- agriculture/ forest

2 divisions of Medoc AOP

Bas-Medoc- more merlot, lack new oak

Haut-Medoc- best vineyard- well drained gravel

Haut-Medoc communes

St Esteph, Pauillac, St Julien, Listrac-Medoc, Moulis en Medoc, Margeaux

1855 Bordeaux Classifications

- commission by Napoleon III

- classified by price (1st-5th growths)

- properties hold status, not land

- only change- Mouton Rothschild added to 1st

growth in 1973

Cru Artisan classifications

-used for 1.5 centuries

- established officially 2002

- 2005- 44 small producers allow designation

- denotes craft winemaking, good stewards of


- no financing from large operations

Cru Bourgeois classifications

- introduced 1932...divided 444 properties in 3


- 2003 official- only 247 chateaux remained

- nullified and then reinstated in 2008

Cru Bourgeois original classifications

Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel, Cru Bourgeois Superieur, Cru Bourgeois

Cru Bourgeois 2008

Classifications eliminated

guarantor of quality

reapply regularly to blind tasting panel

St Estephe AOP

- Northern most commune

- sturdy full-bodied red- merlot dominant

- no 1st growths

- Chateau Cos d'Estournel (super second)

Chateau Cos d'Estournel

Second growth in St Estephe

powerful wines/ polished style

Pauillac AOP

- Classic Claret

- 3 first growths

- gravel top soils at deepest point

- structured, long lived cab-based

- Lafite Rothschild, latour.. pinnacle of Pauillac

Pauillac AOP

First Growths

Lafite Rothchild- aromatics, elegance

Latour- brooding depth and concentration


St Julien AOP

- produces less wine

- 80% of AOP cru classe

- no 1st growths, 5 second growths

- typically elegant in style

- several super seconds

Chateau Leoville Las Cases

Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou

super seconds in St Julien AOPs

Listrac-Medoc AOP

Moulis en Medoc AOP

- no classified growths

- Chateau Chasse-Spleen (Moulis)

famed producer

Margeaux AOP

- Largest communal appellation

- More soil diversity

- feminine style

- 21 classified growths... one 1st growth

- 3rd growth- Chateau Palmer.. excellent estate

Margeaux AOP 1st growth

Chateau Margeaux

Graves AOP history

- longer history than Medoc

- Chateau Pape-Clement 1st vineyard estate

Papal gift to bordeaux in 1305

- King Charles III- 1663 ho-brion in cellar books

- 1785 Thomas Jefferson graves>medoc

- 1855 graves quality fell

Soil and Climate of Graves

Soil similar to medoc, sandier in south

Boulbenes- sand, gravel, light clay mix

Graves white wine production

25% of total production

Graves Classification

- 1855- haut-Brion 1st growth

- 1953- first classified

- 1959- 6 estates added

- 13 red/ 9 white estates now classified cru classe- 16 chateaux included-

- 2005 last vintage of Chateau La Tour Haut-Brion (reds)

- 2008 last vintage of Chateau Laville Haut-Brion (white)

now supply fruit under Chateau La Mission Haut-Brion... INAO support

Pessac- Leognan

- Sub appellation in North Graves- 1987

- prestige appellation of red and whites

- All cru classe in communes:

Pessac, leognan, cadaujac, canejan, gradignan, martillac, merignac,

St-Medard-d'Eyrans, Talence, Villenave-d'Ornons

Graves Superieur AOP

- sweet wines anywhere in Graves

- sauternes, barsac, cerons, best zones

Sauternes and Barsac

- semillion, sauv blanc, muscadelle

- unique climate (Ciron. garonne rivers)

- Botrytis

Botrytis Cincerea

- Dehydrates grapes

- increase sugar, acidity, glycerol

- intense spiced complexity

- honey, saffron, dried fruit

Sauternes AOP regulations

- 5 villages

- Barsac- sold as Barsac or Sauterne

- Min must weight 221g/l

- finished wine min 45g/l

- high percentage of new oak.. up to 2yrs

- picked in tries

Sauternes Classifications

-classified in 1855

-divided into 1st and 2nd growths

-1 chateau achieved Premieur Cru Superieur

- Chateau d-Yquem

Chateau d-Yquem

- Premier Cru Superieur

- picks in 12+ tries

- only produce good vintages (no 1992, 1974)

- Some dry whites: "Y" ("Ygrec")

Labeled as Bordeaux AOP or Bordeaux Su


St Emilion AOP soil and grapes

- merlot, cab franc based

- diverse soil: cotes- steep limestone slopes

graves: gravelly limestone plateau

St Emilion Classifications history

-1954- 3-tier classification

-revised 69, 85, 96, 06, 12

-2006 demoted chateaux argued demotion

-2009 can accept promotion, ignore demotion

- 2012 INAO reviewed

St Emilion Grand Cru AOP

- Appellation not classification

- .5% higher alc, longer elevage

- Grand Cru Classes must meet requirements

2012 INAO revisions to St Emilion Classifications

-Premier Grand Cru Classe A

-Premier Grand Cru Classe B

14 Chateaux

-Grand Cru Classe

64 Chateaux

Pomerol AOP

-Right Bank

-5 sq miles/ 1930 acres under vine

-no classification system

-merlot dominant 75% (25% cab franc- Bouchet)

Soil of Pomerol

Sand, clay, gravel

subsoil- iron pan and rich clay

Chateaux of Pomerol

Petrus, Vieux-Chateu-Certan, Lafleur, Le Pin, Trotanoy

Wines of Pomerol

reputation: hedonistic, plump, opulent

Microchateau/ garagistes movement

- small chateaux making powerfully ripe, modern

wines... late 20th century

Cotes de Bordeaux


Sub zones- Blaye, Cadillac, Castillion, Francs

Cote de Blaye AOP

- Ugni Blanc, Colombard

- sub zone of Cortes de Bordeaux

- larger Blaye AOP... red wines

Where/ What is Entre-deux-mers?

- between Dordogne, Garrone rivers

- one of bordeaux's largest regions

- dry whites

- may use geographical designations (Haut-Be


Leading estate in Cotes de Bourg?

Chateau Roc de Cames

Loupiac, Ste-Croix-du-Mont, Cadillac produces what kind of wine

sweet wine appellations

may or may not be affected by botrytis

Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux AOP

sweet wine appellation

Cotes de Bordeaux-Saint-Macaire AOP

white wines- sec, moulleux, liquereux styles

Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux AOP/ Graves de Vayres AOP

lesser appellations

release red and white wines

Chateau Gilette

Creme de Tete

decades of maturation in concrete vats


Chateaux Palmer classification

3rd growth... margeaux

How many classified growths in St Esteph?

How many are 1st?

- 5 classified growths

- zero

Chateau Chasse-Spleen

famed producer in Moulis en Medoc AOP

Pessac-Leognan sub-communes

Pessac, leognan, cadaujac, canejan, gradignan, martillac, merignac,St-Medard-d'Eyrans, Talence, Villenave-d'Ornons

5 villages of Margeaux AOP

(Soussans, Margeaux, Cantenac, Labarde, Arsac)

5 villages of Sauternes AOP

(sauternes, barsac, fargues, preignac, bommes)

Minimum must/ RS for Sauternes AOP

- must weight 221g/l

- finished wine min 45g/l

2 producers in garagistes movements

- Le Pin (pomerol)

- Valandraud, La Mondotte (St Emilion)

What is Boulbenes?

sand gravel, light clay mix... found in graves

Sub-communes of Cotes de Bordeaux

Blaye, Cadillac, Castillion, Francs

-Premier Grand Cru Classe A- top producers

Chateaux Ausone, Anelus, Pavie, Cheval-Blanc

Bordeaux first growths

Château Lafite Rothschild Médoc (Pauillac)Château Margaux Médoc (Margaux)

Château Latour Médoc (Pauillac)

Château Haut-Brion Pessac-Leognan

Château Mouton-Rothschild Médoc (Pauillac)

Bordeaux second growths

- Margaux: Chateau Durfort-Vivens, Chateau Lascombes, Chateau Brane-

Cantenac, Chateau Pichon-Longueville (Baron), Chateau Rauzan-Segla

Chateau Rauzan-Gassies

- St Julien: Chateau Gruaud-Larose, Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou, Chateau

Leoville-Las Cases, Chateau Leoville Poyferre, Chateau Leoville Barton

- Pauillac: Chateau Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande

- St. Estephe: Chateau Montrose, Chateau Cos d'Estournel

Bordeaux third growths

- Margaux : Chateau Kirwan, Chateau d'Issan, Chateau Giscours, Chateau

Malescot St-Exupery, Chateau Boyd-Cantenac, Chateau Cantenac-

Brown, Chateau Palmer, Chateau Desmirail, Chateau Ferriere, Chateau

Marquis d'Alesme Becker

- St Julien: Chateau Lagrange, Chateau Langoa-Barton

- Haut-Medoc: Chateau La Lagune

- Saint-Estephe: Chateau Calon-Segur

Bordeaux fourth growths

- Margaux: Chateau Pouget, Chateau Prieure-Lichine, Chateau Marquis

de Terme

- St Julien: Chateau Saint-Pierre, Chateau Talbot, Chateau Branaire-Ducru,

Chateau Beychevelle

- Pauillac: Chateau Duhart-Milon-Rothschild

- Haut-Medoc: Chateau La Tour Carnet

- St Estephe: Chateau Lafon-Rochet