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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many cervical vertebra are there?
How many thoracic vertebra are there?
How many lumbar vertebra are there?
How many sacral vertebra are there?
Including the coccyx, how many vertebra are there?
What are the two primary or posterior convex curves of the spine?
What are the two compensatory (secondary) curves of the spine?
An abnormal or exaggerated lumbar curvature is called:
An abnormal lateral curvature of the thoracolumbar spine is called:
The two main parts of the typical vertebra are the:
Vertebral arch
The two bony aspects of the vertebral arch that extend posteriorly from each pedicle to join in the midline are called:
Where does the spinal cord begin?
Medulla oblongata
Where does the spinal cord end?
Bottom of L1
What is the name of the tapered ending of the spinal cord?
Conus medullaris
What are the outer and inner aspects of the intervertebral disk called?
Annulus fibrosus
Nucleus pulposus
What are the joints between the ribs and vertebral body called?
Costovertebral joints
The condition involving a 'slipped disk' is correctly called:
Herniated nucleus pulposus
Name 3 features unique to cervical vertebra:
Transverse foramina
Overlapping vertebral bodies
Bifid spinous processes
The short column of bone found between the superior and articular processes in the cervical vertebra are called
Articular pillars
What is the angle of the zygapophyseal joints of C2 thru C7 to the midsagital plane?
90 degrees
What is the angle of the zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic vertebra to the midsagital plane?
70-75 degrees
What is the name of the joint found between the atlas and the condyles of the skull?
Occipitoatlantal joint
The modified body of C2 is also known as:
Odontoid process
What is the unique feature of all thoracic vertebra that distinguishes them from other vertebra?
Joints for articulation with ribs
Which thoracic vertebra are classified as 'typical' thoracic vertebra?
T5 - T8
What is the name of the upper part of the sternum?
The superior margin of the upper part of the sternum is called?
Jugular (suprasternal) notch
T2- T3
What is the center portion of the sternum called?
Body of the sternum
What is the joint between the top and center portions of the sternum?
Sternal angle
T4 - T5
The most inferior part of the sternum is called:
T9 - T10
The angle of the jaw is called:
List the correct vertebral level for:
Mastoid Tip
Thyroid Cartilage
Jugular Notch
Sternal Angle
Mastoid Tip - C1
Gonion - C3
Thyroid Cartilage - C4-6
Jugular Notch - T2-3
Sternal Angle - T4-5
Xiphoid - T9-10
What organs are especially radiosensitive and of concern during cervical and thoracic radiography?
What are the advantages of using higher kV for spine radiography?
Increased exposure latitude
Decreased patient dose
What is a teardrop fracture?
Fracture of the vertebral body
Usually from hyperextension
Frequently results in neurologic injury
What is Scheuermann's disease?
Osteochondrosis of the spine
Usually seen in children
Results in kyphosis
What's the difference between spondylosis and spondlyitis?
Spondylitis - inflammation of the spine
Spondylosis - progressive rigidity of the spine
Which two landmarks must be aligned for an 'open mouth' projection?
Lower margin of upper incisors
Base of skull
What is the name of the radiographic procedure that requires the injection of contrast media into the subarachnoid space?
What are two benefits of a longer SID for lateral cervical spine projections?
Reduced magnification
Reduced shoulder superimposition
Less CR angle is required for the AP axial projection of the c-spine if the examination is performed supine rather than erect?
For an AP axial of the c-spine, a plane through the tip of the mandible and what structure should be parallel to the angled central ray?
Base of skull
What is the purpose of the 15 - 20 degree angle for the AP axial view of the spine?
Opens intervetebral disk spaces
What CR angulation is used with a posterior oblique projection of the c-spine?
15 degrees cephalad
What is the recommended SID for a lateral projection of the c-spine?
60 - 72 inches
Which region of the spine is best demonstrated with the swimmer's position?
Lower cervical and upper thoracic
Which thoracic vertebrae lack a facet for the costotransverse joint?
T11, T12
Which specific joint spaces are visualized with the LAO projection of the thoracic spine?
Downside of the zygapophyseal joints
An avulsion fracture of the spinous processes of C6 - T1 is called a:
Clay shoveler's fracture
An open-mouth radiograph reveals that the base of the skull is superimposed over the upper odontoid process. What is the error?
Excessive extension
A radiograph of an AP axial projection of the CS reveals that the intervertebral disk spaces are not open. The following factors were used: skull extension; CR 10 degrees cephalad, centered to the thyroid cartilage; no rotation. What should be modified?
Increase to 15 degrees cephalad
A radiograph of the RPO cervical spine reveals that the lower intervertebral foramina are not open. The upper foramina are well visualized. What is the positioning error?
Should be 45 degrees
A radiograph on the lateral projection of the cervical spine reveals that C7 is not clearly demonstrated. The following factors were used: erect position, 44-inch SID, arms at side, exposure during inspiration. What factors should be corrected?
SID - 72"
Suspended respiration at exhalation
A radiograph of the AP wagging-jaw (Ottonello) is taken at 75 kVp, 20 mAs, 0.5 sec demonstrates that part of the image of the mandible is still visible and obscuring the cervical spine. What is the error?
Decrease mAs & increase exposure time
A radiograph of the lateral thoracic spine reveals that lung markings and ribs make it difficult to visualize the vertebral bodies. What factors should be modified?
Orthostatic breathing with increased exposure time and lower mAs
A radiograph of a cervicothoracic lateral position demonstrates superimposition of the humeral heads over the upper thoracic spine. Arthritis prevents the patient from rotating shoulders. What can be done?
Angle CR 3-5 degrees caudad
A radiograph of the lateral thoracic spine reveals that the upper thoracic spine is overexposed, but the loser vertebrae are well visualized. The head of the patient was placed at the anode end of the table. What can be done?
Use a compensating filter on the upper part of the spine
A patient with a possible cervical spine injury enters the ER. The patient is on a back-board. What projection should be taken first?
Horizontal beam lateral
A patient who has been in a MVA enters the ER. The basic projections of the cervical spine are negative. The ER physician wants the spine evaluated for whiplash injury. What additional projections are required?
Hyperextension & hyperflexion
A patient comes to the radiology department for a cervical spine series. An AP 'open-mouth radiograph indicates that the base of the skull and lower edge of the incisors are superimposed and the top of the dens is not clearly demonstrated . What should be done?
AP Fuchs or PA Judd methods
A patient comes to the radiology department for routine cervical spine series. The lateral projection demonstrated C1-C6, but the radiologist needs to see C7-T1. What projections should be added?
Swimmer's (cervicothoracic) lateral position
A patient enters the ER with a possible C-spine fracture. Initial projections are normal. What projection will better see the articular pillars of C4?
AP axial vertebral arch projection
A patient comes to the ER with possible Jefferson fracture. What specific projection will best demonstrate this type of fracture?
AP open mouth projection
A patient comes to the RD with a history of Scheurermann disease. What procedures should be performed?
Scoliosis series