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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Areas of upper limb
1) arm (brachium) - from shoulder to elbow
2) cubital fossa - area anterior to elbow joint
3) forearm (antebrachium) - from elbow to wrist
a) surrounded by antebrachial fascia
4) hand & fingers (digits) - thumb is digit #1; little finger is digit #5
Bones of the Upper Limb
x 6
1) Pectoral Girdle
- consists of clavicle & scapula; attaches upper limb to trunk of body
a) Clavicle
1) articulates with sternum & acromion of scapula
2) serves as strut to hold shoulder & upper limb out away from body to allow for maximum range of upper limb motion
3) protects underlying blood vessels & nerves as they enter upper limb
b) Scapula - curved, flattened bone with triangular shape
1) has spine on dorsal surface - spine continuous laterally with acromion process
a) acromion forms bony tip of shoulder
b) spine of scapula, acromion & clavicle form V-shape
2) motions of scapula:
a) elevation-depression - up/down (vertical) movements of shoulder
b) protrusion (moves anteriorly) - retraction (adduction; moves toward vertebral column) - for pushing-pulling movements
c) superior rotation (upwards) & inferior rotation (downward) - rotation of scapula that produces superior or inferior movement of glenoid fossa; used during aduction-adduction of humerus at shoulder joint
Bones of the Upper Limb
x 6
2) Humerus
bone of arm
Bones of the Upper Limb
x 6
3) Radius
lateeral or thumb side of forearm
Bones of the Upper Limb
x 6
4) Ulna
medial side of arm
a) shafts of radius & ulna joined together by interosseous membrane (connective tissue layer)
Bones of the Upper Limb
x 6
5) Wrist
consists of 8 carpal bones, in two rows of 4 bones each (proximal row & distal row)
Bones of the Upper Limb
x 6
6) Hand
a) metacarpal bones - form palm of hand
1) first metatarsal (at base of thumb) is free to move
2) metacarpals 2-5 joined together in single unit by fascia, tendons, & muscle
b) phalanges - bones of the digits; 2 in thumb, 3 each in other digits
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
1) Sternoclavicular Joint
- between superior sternum & medial end of clavicle
a) this is the only bony articualtion uniting pectoral girdle (& thus upper limb) to body trunk
b) motions: flexion-extension (anterior-posterior motion), abduction-adduction (superior-inferior motion), circumduction (combination of other motions)`
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
2) Acromioclavicular Joint
- between lateral end of clavicle & acromion of scapula
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
3) Glenohumeral Joint
- ball & socket shoulder joint
a) head of humerus articulates with glenoid fossa of scapula
b) motions at shoulder: flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, circumduction, & medial and lateral rotation of humerus at shoulder joint
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
4) Elbow joint
- formed by articulations between:
a) trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna
b) capitulum of humerus and head of radius
c) motions at elbow: flexion-extension only
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
5) Radial-Ulnar Articulation
- articulations between proximal ends of radius & ulna and distal ends of radius & ulna - allow for pronation-supination of forearm
a) supinated position - palm forward (anatomical position); forearm bones are parallel
b) pronated position - palm backward; distal radius crossed over ulna
c) pronation - moving from supinated (anatomical) position to pronated position
d) supination - moving from pronated position to supinated position
e) pronation-supination motions - head of radius rotates; distal radius flips over distal distal ulna
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
6) Radiocarpal Joint
- wrist joint
a) srticulation between proximal row of carpal bones & distal end of radius
1) note that distal ulna does not articulate with carpal bones
b) motions at wrist: flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, circumduction
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
7) Metacarpophalangeal Joints
(knuckle joints of hand) - at base of fingers
a) motions: flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, circumduction
Joints of the Upper Limb
x 8
Interphalangeal Joints
- between phalanx bones within fingers & thumb
a) motions: flexion-extension only
Deep Fascia of Upper Limb
1) Brachial Fascia - arm
2) Antebrachial fascia - forearm
a) muscle tendons that pass from the forearm into the hand are held in place at the wrist by specialized thickenings of teh antebrachial fascia
1) flexor retinaculum - on anterior wrist
2) extensor retinaculum - on posterior wrist