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35 Cards in this Set

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Perichondrium
Dense Irregular CT
Apositional Growth
Chondroblasts in perichondrium divide and secrete new cartilage along inside edge of perichondrium
Interstitial Growth
Chondrocytes in lacunae divide and secrete new matrix
Three types of skeletal cartilage
Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, Elastic
Axial Skeleton
Skull, vertebral column, ribcage
Appendicular Skeleton
Limb girdles, limbs
Types of Bones (6)
Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid, sutural/wormian
Long Bones
-greater length than width
-consists mainly of compact bone tissue, but also some spongy bone
-includes bones of the thigh, legs, toes, arms, forearms, and fingers
Short Bones
-cubeish shape, nearly equal in length and width
-are spongy, except surface mad of thin layer of compact one
-includes wrist and anklebones
Flat Bones
-thin and composed of parallel-plates of compact bone surrounding spongy bone
-found in cranium, sternum, ribs, scapulas
Irregular bones
-complex shapes and can't be categorized
-varying amounts of compact and spongy bone
-includes vertebrae and certain facial bones
Sesamoid bones
*form inside tendon
-considerable pressure exerted upon (wrists)
-everyone has patella, but sesamoid bones vary person to person
Sutural/Wormian bones
small bone sbetween joints of certain cranial bones
-vary from person to person
Functions of Bone (6)
Support-frameowrk for body, and points of attachment for muscle
Protection-internal organs from injury (skull protects brain)
Movement-muscles attach to bone, pulling bone together when muscles contract
Mineral storage and homeostasis-calcium, phosphorous, and several minerals that can be distributed throught the body
-Sit of blood cell production-hematopoiesis(red blood cells produce), red bone marrow found in debeloping bones, pelvis, ribs, breastbone, backbones, etc.
Storage on energy-lipids stored in yellow bone marrow
Osteoprogenitor cells
-Found in periosteum, endosteum, and canals that contain blood vessels
-undergo mitosis to become osteoblasts
Osteoblasts
-found on surfaces of bone tissue
-form bone but do not have ability to divide by mitosis
-form collagen and other compounds needed to build bone
Osteocytes
-mature bone cells
-osteoblasts isolated in bony matrix
-maintain daily cellular activity of bone
Osteoclasts
found on surface of bone tissues and function in bone resorption
Compact bone v. Spongy Bone
Compact-resists compression, easy to break

Spongy-resists bending, stiff and normally won't snap
Osteogenisis/ossification Prenatal
intramembranous ossification-flat bones, when bone replaces fibrous connective tissue

endochondral ossification-bone replaces hyaline cartilage
Intramembranous Ossification
1. Mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate into osteoblasts, forming an ossification center
2. Osteoblasts beging to secrete bone matric and trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes
3. Bone matrix is laid down between blood vessels, which forms random network resulting in woven bone. vascularized mesenchyme condenses on external face of spongy bone to become periosteum
4. Bone collar of compact bone forms and red marrow appears
Bone collar (Endochonral ossification)
osteoblasts in periosteum secrete matrix along diaphysis
Primary ossification center formed (Endochondral)
-chondrocytes hypertrophy and cause cartilage matrix to calcify
-calcified cartilage causes chondrocytes to die
-cavitation=cartilage matrix deteriorates to form cavity
-primary ossification center formed
Spongy bone formed (Endochondral)
-periosteal bud invades internal cavity
-osteoclasts erode calcified cartilage
-osteoblasts secrete bone matrix around remaining cartilage
Medullary Cavity formed (endochondral)
-osteoclasts break down newly formed bone forming the medullary cavity
-cartialge at the epiphyses continues to grow in length
Secondary Ossification Center forms (endochondral)
-same process as primary, hyaline cartialge remains only as articular cartialge and epiphyseal plate
Growth in length
cartilage grows on epiphyseal side, cartilage is replaced on diaphysis side, then same process as secondary ossification....
Growth in width-apositional
osteobalasts beneath periosteum secrete new bone while osteoclasts in endosteum breka down bone produces compact bone
Hematoma Formation
-bone breaks, blood vessels torn, hemorage --> hematoma
-bone cells die of lack of nutrition
Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
-phagocytic cells brought in with new blood vessels to clear debri, fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers, collagen fibers connect broken ends of bone
-chondroblasts come from fibrocartilage and secrete cartilage matrix
forms fibrocartilage callus
Bony Callous Formation
-osteoblasts form spongy bone, compact bone is laid down to reconstruct shaft walls, new bone resembles old bone because same stress lines still apply
Osteomalacia
a collection of disorders where the bones are inadequately mineralized. calcium salts are not deposited and bones soften and weaken. the main symptom is pain when weight is put on the affected bone.
Rickets
a vitamin D deficiency where the body doesn't absorb calcium and phosphorous, causing the bones of the legs to bow when a child walks.
Paget's Disease
excessive bone formation and breakdown
Osteoporosis
decreased bone mass and increase in fractures