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40 Cards in this Set

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Body Mechanics: use of ones body to producemotion that is-

*body mechanics includes avoiding Valsalva Maneuver*


Along with good posture:good body mechanics reduces

stress, fatigue, strain andinjury

Gravity and friction add resistance to

*It is desirable to reduce these factors*

lifting, pushing,pulling, carrying

Lever arm when decreased it creates

a better mechanicaladvantage

-Keep it short by puttingobject close to you


effectiveness of a force ina turning lever system

-You will need less if theobject is close to you

Center of gravity (COG): anterior to s2

where the mass of your bodyor an object is concentrated

-Keep your COG and the object’s COG close to each other. Ie:raise the bed.

-Lowering COG increases stability.

Base of support (BOS)

the area on which on objectrests, provides support for the object

-Your feet and the distancebetween them should be larger to produce better balance.

Increase base of supportby increasing

medial-lateral stance or anterior posterior stance

-AD(assistive device) increase patient’s BOS

Vertical line ofgravity(VGL)

an imaginery line that passes through the center of gravityof an object

keep your VGL within

(See procedure 4-1, pg 75)

the BOS, position your feetin direction you want to go

As the leader of theactivity

(Prep for moving patient)

you must inform all those assisting exactly what to do,how and when to do it.

Lifting precautions

avoid simultaneous trunkflexion and rotation

-Maintain the normal lumbar lordotic curve.

Principlesof proper Body Mechanics:

-Position self close to the object

-Maintain VGL within BOS

-Position own COG close to objects COG

-Use major muscles and maintain lordosis

-Roll/push/pull/slide object instead of lifting it

-Avoid flexion and rotation

Proper Posture

-Maintain normal curvatures of spine

-Shoulders and pelvis should be in line, avoid rounded back

-Stand with ankles, knees, hips, shoulders aligned, head overshoulders not in front

-Knees slightly flexed, chin slightly tucked, abdominalwall flat


-elbows, knees, hips flexed to 90 deg

-Don’t stay in 1 position for too long.


-pillow b/w or behind knees. One pillow under head only.

-Computer screen should be 10 deg below horizontal.

-Forearms need to be supported in sitting.

-Prolonged standing, place one foot on a step stool.

assistance lvls

Independent(I with circle around i)

pt needs no help

(S)Supervision/stand by assist(SBA)

no touching, but may need verbal cues. Wouldn’t have been safe without you there

Contact guard assist (CGA)

you touch to steady or cue them

Min a-Minimal assist

pt does 75% or more of the work -PTA does 25% or less

Mod A- moderate assist

pt does 50% of the work 50/50 between you and pt. 50-74%still mod assist.

Max a-maximum assist

pt does 25-49% of the work

Total or dependent

pt does less than 25% of the work

Modified independent (mod I)

pt can do the activity without help but needs a tool or extra time (walker, can reacher, rails, ect

Components of a Lever

•Axis:also known as the pivot or fulcrum

•Resistance:the weight or center of mass of the part being moved

•Force:the power that is causing movement

1st class levers

•Axisis in between the Force and Resistance

•F-A-Ror R-A-F

•Favors balance when the axis is centered

•Examples:seesaw, hammer removing a nail

•Triceps brachii for elbow extension is a first class lever Fis insertion on olecranon process, R is center of gravity of forearm, Axis isthe elbow

2nd class levers

•Rand F are on same side of Axis

•R-F-Aor F-R-A

•Favors force, power

•Examples: push ups, wheel barrow, nutcracker

3rd class levers

•Rand F are on the same side of the axis

•Resistance arm is longer than the Force arm

•3rd class levers favor speed

•Examples: shovel, baseball bat, most muscles of the body

pressure ulcers

•Areaof skin and tissue that becomes injured or broken down

•Occurswhen a person is in one position for too long

•Constantpressure against the skin causes ischemia to that area causing anoxia and celldeath (necrosis)

•Itis painful, dangerous and best of all AVOIDABLE!!!!!!!

Direct pressure:

-high pressure can cause breakdown in a short time

-low pressure requires a longer period of time

-1-2hours at 60-70 mmHG can start to cause irreversible skin breakdown

Shearing forces/friction

-Whenone point moves directly along another surface

-When shearing occurs with pressure the breakdown in accelerated

-Creates an angling effect on capillaries causing further injury

Risk Factors


•Decreased sensation

•Decreased circulation, venous or arterial

•Moisture and maceration

•Decreased mobility

•Poor nutrition and dehydration

•Advanced age


•Medications (such as corticosteroids)

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