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34 Cards in this Set

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DSM: Body Dysmorphic disorder is a preoccupation with..

One or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that aren't observable or appear slight to others

DSM: At some point during the course of Body Dysmorphia, the individual has performed..

Repetitive behaviours (eg. mirror checking) or mental acts (eg. comparing appearance to others) in response to appearance concerns

DSM: The preoccupation with the body part causes clinically sig. distress or impairment in..

Social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

DSM: Concerns with weight or body fat is..

Not a form of body dysmorphia and better described as an eating disorder.

DSM: What is muscle dysmorphia?

Individual is concerned body is too small or insufficiently muscular.

DSM: What does it mean if the person with Body Dysmorphia has good or fair insight?

They recognize the belief about the body part is probably not true

DSM: What does it mean if the person with Body Dysmorphia has poor insight?

They think the belief about the body part is probably true

DSM: What does it mean if the person with Body Dysmorphia has absent/dellusional insight?

They think the belief about the body part is absolutely true.

Prev, Inc., Demo: What is prevalence like for adults in the U.S.?

Prevalence is 2.4% among adults in the US with females being slightly higher than males

Prev, Inc, Demo: What's prevalence like for adults outside the US?

Lowers to about 1.8%

Prev, Inc, Demo: Where did researchers find a high prevalence rate of BDD?

Rhinoplasty patients

Prev, Inc, Demo: When do most patients with BDD experience symptoms?

Before the age of 18 (early onset)

Prev, Inc, Demo: What is considered late onset of BDD?

After the age of 18

Prev, Inc, Demo: Compared with late onset, those with early onset BDD..

Report more severe symptoms eg. more likely to commit suicide and are more physically violent.

Prev, Inc, Demo: While BDD tends to be chronic, prevalence of the disorder decreases around what age?

Forty four

Prev, Inc, Demo: People with BDD tend to have a comorbidity with what mood disorders?

Anxiety and depression

Prev, Inc, Demo: People with BDD tend to have a comorbidity with what personality disorders?

Narcissistic and avoidant personality disorders

Prev, Inc, Demo: Males with BDI report more ________ while females report more _________.

Obsessive beliefs




Social anxiety





Prev, Inc, Demo: Why is BDD under diagnosed?

Often gets confused with other disorders such as OCD, anxiety and eating disorders

Bio I: Men with muscle dysphoria engage in risky behaviour such as __________

Steroid use

Bio I: Men with muscle dysphoria have a high rate of _________

Substance abuse

Bio I: What have many with BDD reported in terms of risky behaviour?

Many are substance abusers or substance dependent due to BDD

Bio I: In a study on BDD what other risk behaviour has been reported as an addiction?

Excessive tanning

Bio I: What is a common behaviour of those with BDD related to the skin?

Skin picking especially in those who tan excessively

Bio I: A common consequence of those with BDD who engage in excessive exercise and excessive diet is?

Drastic weight loss

Bio I: What do twin studies show about BDD?

Genetic factors alone account for %44 of the variance in BDD

Bio II: BDD is related to significantly smaller...

Orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalamus, left anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and amygdala.




*For this one on the test I would just say hippocampus & amygdala as well as various other brain structures in the neighbouring area* ahahahhaa

Bio II: High anxiety levels accompanying BDD are associated with..

Thinner grey matter in the left superior temporal cortex and greater grey matter volume in the right caudate nucleus

Bio II: In one study, brain imaging showed that there was fractional anisotropy in..

Major white matter tracts throughout the brain

Bio II: An MRI study on patients with BDD showed that there's a relationship between poor insight and..

Fibre disorganization in tracts connecting visual with emotion/memory processing systems

Bio II: A meta-analysis on BDD showed that there was a pattern of..

Excessive attention to detail, reduced processing of global features and a tendency to over-focus on facial features

Bio II: In an MRI on BDD patients, abnormal patterns of brain activation were measured when...

patients were visually processing their own face with high, low or normal spatial resolutions

Bio II: The severity of BDD symptoms correlate...

Positively with activity in the frontostriatal systems and visual cortex.

Bio II: Those with BDD have issues with _________ which lead to distortions

Visual processing