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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 major somatosensory pathways
posterior column (medial lemniscal pathway)

anterolateral pathway
posterior column-medial lemniscal pathway
proprioception, vibration sense, fine discriminative touch
anterolateral pathway
includes spinothalamic tract and other assoc tracts - pain, temp, crude touch. also spinoreticular and spinomesencephalic tracts
dorsal root ganglia
contain sensory neuron bodies, have axons that bifurcate, w/ one process extending to periphery and other into SC thru dorsal nerve roots
posterior column pathway
large diameter myelinated axons enter SC in ipsilateral posterior column and ascend to posterior column nuclei in medulla- decussate as internal arcuate fibers and become medial lemnisus tract- terminate in ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of thalamus- project thru internal capsule to somatosens cortex. some axon collaterals enter SC gray matter and synapse onto interneurons and motor neurons.
spinothalamic tract
smaller diameter, unmyelinated axons synapse immediately in gray matter of SC, cross over in SC anterior commissure to sscend in anterolateral WM, altho it takes 2-3 spinal segments to cross, so lesion will affect contralateral pain a few segments below level of lesion.
gate control theory of pain
sensory inputs from nonpain fibers (A-beta) reduce pain transmission through dorsal horn. e.g., TENS devices reduce chronic pain by activating these fibers.
thalamic nuclear groups
medial, lateral and anterior groups that are separated by Y-shaped WM (internal medullary lamina), which has its own nuclear group (intralaminar nuclei), midline thalamic nuclei, thalamic reticular nucleus
ventral posterior medial (VPM) and ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nuclei of thalamus
somatosensory pathways from CN and SC, respectively. These project to primary somatosensory cortex
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of thalamus
input from retina, relays to primary visual cortex
inputs from inferior colliculus, relays to primary auditory cortex
ventral lateral (VL) and ventral anterior (VA) nucleus of thalamus
inputs from GP, cerebellar nuclei, SN, relays to motor cortex. fx is to relay info from BG and cerebellum to cortex
Pulvinar of thalamus
inputs from tectum, relays to P-T association areas. fx is behavioral orientation to relevant visual or other stimuli
mediodorsal nucleus of thalamus
inputs from amygdala, OLF cortex, BG, relays to frontal cortex
intralaminar nuclei
connections to BG and ascending RAS to maintain alert, conscious state
reticular nucleus of thalamus
does not connect to cortex, has inputs from other areas of thalamus and is mostly inhibitory to regulate thalamic activity
can be caused by lesions to somatosensory pathways. characteristic of paresthesias have localizing value (e.g., anterolateral pathway damage leads to sharp, burning, or searing pain. posterior column-tingling or numb sensation)
radicular pain
lesion to nerve root that causes radiating limb pain in a dermatomal distribution
Dejerine-Roussy syndrome
severe contralateral pain caused by thalamic lesions
painful sensation provoked by normally nonpainful stimuli
hyperpathia or hyperalgesia
enhanced pain to normally painful stimuli
SC dysfx
SC infarction
usu due to anterior spinal artery occlusion, leading to anterior cord syndrome. causes are traumatic, aortic dissection, thromboembolic and disc emboli
can be infectious or inflammatory, usu presents w/ SC dysfx and develops quickly