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86 Cards in this Set

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Transport and distribute blood throughouut the body
Blood vessels
5 main types of blood vessels
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins
carry blood away from the heart to other organs/tissues
arteries
branch off from small arteries and enter tissue
Arterioles
tiny vessels that branch off from arterioles;allow exchange of substances between blood and tissues
Capillaries
Small veins created when capillaries re-unite
Venules
created by the merging of venules; carry blood BACK TOWARDS the heart
Veins
small blood vessels that serve the larger blood vessels
these need oxygen 7 nutrients like any other tissue
Vaso Vasorum
the growth of new blood vessles
Angiogenesis
Artery walls have three layers
Tunica interna
Tunica media
Tunica externa
sometimes called tunica intima innermost layer od Artery wall. Composed of emdothelium, basement membrane and elastic tissue
Tunica interna
middle layer of Artery wall. Thickest layer composed of smooth muscle and elastic tissue
Tunica media
Sometimes called tunica adventitia;outermost layer composed of elastic fibers & collagen
Tunica externa
Empty space in the middle where blood flows
lumen
The smooth muscle of the ? ? contains sympathetic neurons
Tunica media
When nervous stimulation increases, the smooth muscle contracts and the diameter of the artery decreases
Vasoconstriction
When nervous stimulation decreases, the smooth muscle relaxes, and the diameter of the artery increases
Vasodilation
If an artery or arteriole is damaged, ? occurs to limit blood flow, decreasing blood loss
Vasoconstriction
Large diameter arteries (>1cm) are ? ?
elastic arteries
Elastic arteries tunica media contains a high proprtion of ? ?
elastic fibers
? Help propel blood onward while the ventricles of the heart are relaxed
Elastic arteries
Medium diameter arteries are ? ?
Muscular arteries
Muscular arteries tunica media contains more ? ? ?
Smooth muscle fibers
Blood flow is determined by ? and ?
vasoconstriction and vasodilation
deliver blood from arteries to capillaries
Arterioles
Arterioles regulate ? which is the opposition to the blood flow
resistance
Vasoconstriction of arterioles leads to ? resistance; this ? blood flow to the capillaries
Greater; decreases
Vasodilation of arterioles leads to ? resisitance; This ? blood flow to capillaries
Less; Increases
Microscopic vessels that carry blood from arteriole to tissues and from tissues to venules
Capillaries
Found near almost every cell in the body
Capillaries
Number of ? in a given tissue varies with that tissue's metabolic needs
capillaries
High metabolic requirements = ? ? capillary network
Ex: kidneys, muscles, liver
more extensive
Capillaries are ? vessels
Exchange
Their main fuction is to exchange nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue cells
Capillaries
Composed of 2 layers, a layer of endothelial cells and a basement membrane
Capillaries
No tunica media(no smooth muscle and no tunica externa
Capillaries
endothelial cells forma continuos tubew/tiny intercellular clefts between them; these allow very small substances to leave and enter the capillaries Ex: oxygen, glucose, amino acids
Continuous capillary
Endothelial cells have small holes in them called fenestrations these allow larger substances to leave and enter the capillaries Ex: polypeptides(small proteins)
Fenestrated capillary
found in kidneys, small intestine, and some endocrine glands
Fenestrated capillary
endothelial cells have very large fenetrations and large intercellular clefts
Sinusoid capillaries
These allow even larger substances to leave and enter the capillaries
Sinusoid capillaries
These are found in red bone marrow, liver and other endocrine glands.
Sinusoid capillaries
Capillaries are arranged in netwroks of 10-100; this is a ? ?
Capillary bed
Normally blood flows as follows
Artery>Arteriole>Capillary>Venule>Vein
BUT in some parts of the body blood flows from one capillary bed to another: this is called a ? ?
Portal system
A ? ? system is used when something (like hormones) has to flow quickly from one area to another ex: Hypophyseal portal system between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
portal system
Capillaries re-unite to form venules; deliver blood from capillaries to veins
Venules
delivers blood back to the heart
Have the same 3 layers as arteries but with different thicknesses
Veins
In veins ? ? is the thickest not Tunica media
Tunica externa
Many veins have valves inside them to prevent the backflow of blood; ? never do
arteries
Vein's Valves are made of thin folds of ? ?
tunica interna
Valves that become leaky due to stress and inactivity. blood will pool and the vein will swell and become distended
Varicose vein
Bulging veins in the anal canal are called
hemorrhoids
Blood returns to the heart through the contraction of the muscles of the lower body. This is called the
skeletal muscle pump
Contraction of the ? ? ? milks the blood, or pushes it throught the valves
Skeletal muscle pump
The volume of blood flowing back to the heart through the veins of the body is ? ?
Venous return
When 2 or more vessels come together in the same region this is an ?
anastomosis
If blood flow is completely blocked to a tissue the tissue ?
necrotizes(dies)
? ? is necrosis of mnyocardium due to blockage of coronary vessels
Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
The volume of blood that flows through any tissue within a given time period is ??
Blood flow
blood flow is affected by ? and ?
resistance and pressure
blood flows from areas of ? pressure to areas of ? pressure
higher; lower
? ? is the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of a vessel
Blood pressure
? ? pressure during systole or contraction of the ventricles' highest pressure attained in the arteries
Systolic pressure
? ? pressure during the diastols, or relaxation of the ventricles; this is the lowest pressure attained in the arteries
Diastolic pressure
Blood pressure =
(systolic BP/diastolic BP)
measured in ?, millimeters of mercury( a unit of pressure)
mmHg
a healthy adult has a blood pressure of
~110/70
Blood pressure is measure dusing a ? and a ?
sphygmomanometer and a stethescope
Cuff is placed around the brachial artery and inflated until ~##mmHg
~30mmHg
Cuff is deflated and blood is rushing through the open artery
Systole
Cuff is deflated until blood is last heard
Diastole
? is the opposition to blood flow
this is due to friction between the blood and the vessel wall
Resistance
Resistance depends on 3 factors
Size of the lumen
Blood viscosity
Length of blood vessel
smaller lumen =
vasoconstriction of the arterioles
greater resistance
Higher viscosity(thickness) =
Dehydration or an increase in RBC's
Greater resistance
Longer blood vessel =
Overweight people have more blood vessels
Greater resistance
In over weight people...
Over time, greater resistance will lead to higher blood pressure
Cuff is deflated and blood is rushing through the open artery
Systole
Cuff is deflated until blood is last heard
Diastole
? is the opposition to blood flow
this is due to friction between the blood and the vessel wall
Resistance
Resistance depends on 3 factors
Size of the lumen
Blood viscosity
Length of blood vessel
smaller lumen =
vasoconstriction of the arterioles
greater resistance
Higher viscosity(thickness) =
Dehydration or an increase in RBC's
Greater resistance
Longer blood vessel =
Overweight people have more blood vessels
Greater resistance
In over weight people...
Over time, greater resistance will lead to higher blood pressure