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33 Cards in this Set

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**What is the rarest type of ABO type?
**What is Landsteiner's Rule?
That almost all normal healthy ppl older than 3-6 months have naturally occurring antibodies to ABO antigen they lack
What is the Bonbay phenotype?
Rare. Ppl that lack A and B antigens (apparent group O) but have antibodies to A and B but also to an apparent O antigen. Only safe blood donor for Bombay is from another person with Bombay
When do rbc A and B antigens develop?
As early as 6th wk of fetal life, but increases slowly in concentration. Adult levels reached around age 3
**What type of antibodies are ABO abs?
Mostly IgM, but some can be IgA and IgG. Capable of activating complement and are saline agglutinins.
How do ABO abs form?
Shortly after birth after exposure to environment agents
**What are the Rh antigens/ antibodies?
6: C, D, E, c, d, e
**What is the one Rh antibody that does not exist?
What percent of the population is Rh pos?
What diseases can affect the ABO system? What happens?
CLL, CA stomach, non-hodgkins lymphoma. Can lead to an alteration in the ABO antigens or antibodies. Or there can be a decrease in antigen strength.
What is it called when forward and reverse typing don't match?
Cell-serum group discrepancy
What are 6 technical errors that can cause a forward/reverse typing discrepancy?
Failure to follow manufacture directions, contaminated reagents, improper concentration of RBCs, failure to add reagents or improper amts, improper centrifugation, warmin of test
What are 5 causes of discrepancies of forward/ reverse typing?
Tehcnical error/clerical, weak or missing antiboides, unexpected cold-reactive autoantibodies, unexpected cold-reactive antibodies, rouleaux
What is the most common cause of a forward/reverse discrepancy?
Weak or missing antibody. Can be seen in very young and very old, or in certain disease states.
Neonatal, elderly, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunosuppressed, bone marrow transplants
**What does the consent for possible transfusion usually consist of?
Explanation of risks, benefits and alternatives. Allowing an opportunity for pt to ask questions. Obtaining a signature
What is the most commonly transmitted viral agent via blood products?
What is the most common infectious complication of blood product transfusion?
Hep C 1-2%
**What are 5 complications from transfusions?
Infection (HIV, Hep), Febrile reactions/ hives, Fever, Urticaria, Serious complications (pulmonary edema, renal failure, anaphylaxis, bacterial contamination, death)
**What is the most common complication from transfusions? What percentage?
Fever. 5%. Antipyretics or antihistamines given prophylactically to recipient to treat fever.
What are 4 options as opposed to normal blood transfusion?
Autologous blood donation, designated blood transfusion, autologous blood savage, transfusion adjunts
What is an autologous blood donation?
Patient's own blood collected preoperatively for storage and eventual transfusion. Donation up to 1 unit every 72 hours as long as hct is >33%
What is autologous blood salvage?
Intraoperative blood salvage - passing recovered blood through cell saver via washing and centrifugation. Not used in cancer surgeries - risk of transfusing cancer cells that could metastasize. Also not used if risk of bacterial contamination.
What are transfusion adjuncts?
Recombinanat erythropoietin used in pts w/ renal failure to increase rbc mass. Preoperative hemodilution
**How long is type and crossed blood held in reserve?
approx 24 hrs
**What is the volume of 1 unit of whole blood?
450 mL. Not usually used
**What is the volume of 1 unit packed red cells?
250-300 mL most common product
What is the volume of platelets? How is it usually administered?
50 mL. Usually given in multiples of 6-10 packs per patient
What does cryo contain?
Factors VIII and XIII, vWF and fibrinogen
What does FFP contain?
II, IV, VII, IX, X, XI, XII. Used for pts w/ undiagnosed bleeding condition or when lrg quant of packed rbcs may be required. 150-250 mL per unit
What product is used for people undergoing rental transplantation or immunocompromised or ppl w/ previous transfusion reactions?
Washed RBCs - almost all wbcs removed
What is Leukocyte poor blood cells?
Most WBCs removed to make it less antigenic. Less pure than washed RBCs One unit = 200-250 mL
What size needle used for transfusion?
18G or larger
What are blood products transfused with?
Only isotonic saline. Other solutions could cause agglutination or lysis