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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is plasma and what is it made of?

A pale yellow coloured fluid. Is 55% of the blood making up it's fluid portion. Mostly made up of water, but also contains blood proteins, glucose, vitamins, minerals, dissolved gases, and waste products of cellular metabolism.

What are the three main types of proteins, and what are their functions?

Albumins - maintain osmotic balance.

Globulins - create antibodies and build immunity.

Fibrinogens - aids the blood clotting process.

What is a red blood cell that contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen called?

An erythrocyte (45% of the blood)

Where are erythrocytes formed?

In the bone marrow

What do erythrocytes lack?

A nucleus

What is a red blood cell's average life span?

120 days

How are red blood cell's shaped and why is this important?

They are biconcave disks. This allows the maximum diffusion of gases, and allows them to move through the small diameter of the capillaries.

What causes anemia?

The reduction in blood oxygen due to low levels of hemoglobin or poor red blood cell production.

What is a leukocyte?

A white blood cell.

What are the two categories of leukocytes, and what sets them apart?

Granular - polymorphonuclear (the nucleus has several lobes)

Agranular - mononuclear cells (one lobe to the nucleus)

What are the most abundant types of granular leukocytes, and what are their functions?

Neutrophil - fast acting phagocytic cell.

Eosinophil - fighters of microbes and parasites.

Basophil - fighters of allergic reactions and also has an anticoagulant (prevents blood clotting).

What are the two major groups of agranular white blood cells?

Lymphocytes - involved in the production of antibodies.

Monocytes - remove cellular debris by phagocytosis.

When swollen, what can agranular white blood cells become?

Macrophages that can rapidly consume large numbers of foreign substances.

How long do white blood cells live?

They can live for years, but can die quickly when in "battle".

What is diapedesis?

The process by which white blood cells squeeze out of capillaries into the extracellular fluid region.

The word means "to feet". (The white blood cell is "sticking it's foot out" then pulling the rest of itself with it).

What is the component of blood responsible for initiating blood clotting?


What is the clotting sequence?

-Platelets rupture and release the enzyme thromboplastin.

-Thromboplastin activates prothrombin turning it into thrombin.

-Thrombin causes the plasma soluble globular protein fibrinogen to form a peptide called fibrin.

-Fibrin weaves itself into a net which catches other blood cells and clotting substances.

What is a thrombus?

A blood clot that forms within a blood vessel and blocks it.

What is a blood clot that dislodges and is carried by the circulatory system to another part of the body called?

An embolus.

What is an antigen?

A substance that stimulates the formation of an antibody.

What is a protein formed within the blood that reacts with an antigen called?

An antibody.

What are the four basic groups of blood?

O, A, B, and AB

What is agglutination?

the clumping of blood cells caused by antigens and antibodies.

How do blood types react to each other?

Blood type A will produce antibodies and agglutinate when exposed to a foreign B marker (antigen). It possesses an A marker.

Blood type B will produce antibodies and agglutinate when exposed to a foreign A marker (antigen). It possesses a B marker.

Blood type AB will not produce antibodies because it is the universal receiver (can accept both types of markers). It possesses both an A and B marker.

Blood type O will produce antibodies when exposed to both a foreign A and B marker. It is the universal donor, due to it not possessing a marker (antigens).

What ways can oxygen be transported in the blood?

-via hemoglobin (99%)

-dissolved within the plasma. (1%)

What is hemoglobin composed of?

Heme and globin.

What is heme?

A non-protein iron molecule which binds and carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.

What is globin?

A series of four polypeptide chains.

How many oxygens can bind to one heme group, and what does this combination produce?

4, forms oxyhemoglobin.

Hb + 4O2 = Hb(O2)4

What factors affect the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin?

-Temperature (increase in temperature causes increase in oxygen release)

-Blood Acidity (increased acidity causes increase in oxygen release. CO2 + H20 = H2CO3)

-Oxygen Concentration (areas of low pressure trigger the release of oxygen)

How many heme groups are there per red blood cell?


How does oxygenation change a red blood cell?

Changes the 3D shape of the polypeptide chains (the globin) and causes a colour change to brighter red.

How is carbon dioxide transported within the blood system?

-Reacts with water at the capillaries to produce carbonic acid (about 64%)

-via hemoglobin (about 27%)

-dissolved in blood plasma (about 9%)

What happens when carbonic acid dissociates?

Hydrogen and carbonate ions are created.

What do the hydrogen and carbonate ions do once dissociated from carbonic acid?

Hydrogen ions combine with hemoglobin so that the blood's pH remains unaffected.

Carbonate ions travel through the blood to the lungs where the reaction reverses and carbon dioxide and water is released.

What is phagocytosis?

The process by which a white blood cell engulfs and chemically destroys a microbe.

What is a phagocyte white blood cell found in a lymph node, the bone marrow, the spleen, and the liver called?

A macrophage

What is pus?

A thick liquid composed of protein fragments from digested leukocytes and microbes.

What is a localized, non-specific response triggered when tissue cells are injured by bacteria or physical injury, characterized by swelling, heat, redness, and pain called?

An inflammatory response

What is a complement protein?

A plasma protein that helps defend against invading microbes by tagging the microbe for phagocytosis, puncturing cell membranes, or triggering the formation of a mucous coating.

What is a lymphocyte (manufactured in the bone marrow and processed by the thymus gland) that identifies and attacks foreign substances?

A T cell.

What is a B cell?

A lymphocyte (made and processed in the bone marrow) that produces antibodies.

What is a port along a cell membrane into which hormones, nutrients, and other needed materials fit?

A receptor site

What are helper T cells?

A T cell with receptors that bind to fragments of antigens. They are responsible for triggering the production of antibodies once it is attached to a foreign invader.

What is a protein produced by the T cells that acts as a chemical messenger between other T cells and B cells?


What is a killer T cell?

A T cell that destroys microbes, body cells infected with viruses, and mutated cells by puncturing cell membranes.

What is a T cell that turns off the immune system called?

A suppressor T cell

What is a memory B cell?

A B cell that retains information about the shape of an antigen.

What is a cell that is capable of developing into a number of specialized cells, such as a neuron or muscle cell called?

A pluripotent cell (ex. stem cells)

Can the liver provide the stimulus for RBC formation?

Yes, yes it can.

What compound has a greater affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen?

Carbon monoxide

What are our bodies three basic lines of defence against disease?

1. Physical - skin provides protective barrier. Also, bacteria that is inhaled can become trapped in a layer of mucus and swept away from lungs by the cillia.

2. Chemical - stomach produces acids that destroy bacteria. An enzyme in human tears (lysozyme) destroys cell walls of invading bacteria.

3. Leukocytes - when an invader takes up residence within the body, WBCs (many types) seek out and destroy any foreign particle by phagocytosis.

What three events do compliment proteins trigger?

1. The formation of a protective coating around an invader.

2. The dissolving of the invaders cell membrane

3. The attraction of white blood cells to engulf the invader.

Why might newborn babies have a natural immunity towards certain diseases?

If the mother has developed a passive immunity towards a disease, the antibodies built up in the mother pass into the placenta and enters the baby's blood, providing immunity that lasts several months. (Can last longer if the baby is breast fed).