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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Does water regulate pH?
What does CO2 come from?
Partly from oxidation of food.
What are three buffer systems in the body?
Bicarbonate, phosphate and hemoglobin.
Are the kidneys involved in a buffer system, and if yes, what do they excrete as a result?
Ammonium ions and phosphate.
Is water polar?
Yes, very.
Is water a good solvent?
Yes, it is.
What is water a good solvent for?
It is a good solvent for polar and hydrophilic molecules.
Does water have a high heat of evaporation?
Does water have a high dielectric constant?
Yes it does.
What type of structure does water have? Tetrahedral
So oxygen is positive or negative? Negative
Which makes the hydrogens in water what?
Partially positive.
What is hydrogen bonding in water?
It is due to the partial charges of hydrogen and oxygen in water that allows it to create electrostatic interactions between other waters (and other molecules that will interact)
Does hydrogen bonding do anything important?
This is what gives water its unique properties.
In ice, is the water closer or farther than in liquid water?
They are farther apart in ice, and closer in water. This is what gives them a crystalline structure.
Does this impart a change in physical property for water as an ice?
Yes, this is why water as ice is less dense.
Are hydrogen bonds longer than covalent bonds?
Yes they are.
Do you find hydrogen bonds in nucleic acids?
Yes you do. The two helices are held together by hydrogen bonds.
Do you find them in sugars?
Why do you find them in sugars?
Sugars have lots of hydroxyl groups, and they interact with water, and water will help break them up.
Is cellulose hydrogen bonded together?
Does this impart any physical properties to them?
Yes, this is why they have such a great deal of strength
What do hydrophobic forces do to water, like if you immersed water with a hydrocarbon, what happens to water?
The hydrocarbons can't hydrogen bond, so it disrupts the structure of water.
What is this referred to as?
Hydrophobic interactions.
What are amphipathic molecules?
They are mixtures of hydrophobic and hydrophilic structures
What is an example of an amphipathic molecule?
Detergent or fatty acids.
What is the structure of a detergent?
Long hydrocarbon chains and a long polar end
The polar end in detergent may be what?
It may be a sulfate or have an amino end.
How are bases held together in nucleic acids?
They are held together by hydrophobic forces.
Are lipids soluble in water?
What do lipids form when needing to be transported through water then?
What are lipoproteins?
They are structured with lipids in the middle and proteins on the exterior. Hydrophobic in the middle, and hydrophilic on the outside.
What is the force between two two things electrostatically based upon?
It is based upon the charge, the distance between them, and the factor called the dielectric constant.
Does a vacuum or water have a higher dielectric constant?
Water has a dielectric constant of 80. A vacuum is 1.
What are VdW's forces?
They are forces that occur as molecules get closer together.
Are VdW's strong or weak?
Then what's the point?
Lots of them put together makes a sizeable difference, rather than having none at all.
What is an acid?
Proton donor.
What is a base?
Proton acceptor
HA is what?
A:- is what?
What does pK equal?
It equals the negative log of K
Is the dissociation constant a constant?
No, it depends on whether or not the pK is 6.8 or 7.2, and it changes as a result.
What is an easy way to remember how kD relates to strength of an acid?
The greater the kD, the greater the degree of dissociation, and the stronger the acid.
What is a buffered solution?
One that resists changes in pH.
What is our bodies pH?
What does a buffer contain?
An acid and it's conjugate base.
Is a pure acid or salt a buffer, ever?
When you first change pH in a titration curve, will it change quickly or slowly?
When does it slow down?
When it reaches the buffered region.
The steepest part of the curve correlates to what in a titration curve?
It correlates to the half-titration point.
What is the relationship to pH and pKa?
pH equals pKa
What is a polyprotic acid?
It's an acid that can donate more than one proton.
If something has a pK of about 3, what is it probably?
It probably is a carboxyl group.
What is the isoelectric point?
It's the point where it wont move an electric charge.
What is a phosphate buffer?
It's a very common buffer, with 3 dissociable groups.
What are it's 3 pKa's?
2, 6.8, and 11.8
Is phosphate in the urine?
What does the HH equation allow you to do?
Describe a buffer system, and it relates the pH of the buffer to the pK of the buffer.
How is the pH of a buffer related to the pK of a buffer?
They are determined by the ratio of conjugate base to the acid.
What is the law of electroneutrality?
It says if you have a solution, it has to be electrically neutral.
When you have 1 millimole of acid, and you convert that acid to conjugate base, how much conjugate base do you have?
1 millimole.
How many acidic groups are in an amino acid?
At least 2 acidic groups.
What is the pK of an amino group?
So, if you have an acid, and are titrating it, with an amino group and a carboxyl group, what will pop off first?
The carboxyl group, because it has a lower pK.