Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How much does the cost of clinical trials account for in percent?

80% to 90%


Studies on how drug impacts the body and how the body interacts with the drug


Identify cancer-inducting potential


Detect the drugs ability to cause an increase in genetic alterations

How many stages are required before approval?

4 Stages

How many drugs who make it to clinical make it to the market?

1 in 5

Which phase do drugs normally fall in?

Phase 2

Phase 4 of Clinical Trials

Safety and Efficacy

Designed to detect any rare or long term adverse effects

Phase 3 of Clinical Trials

Random and Controlled

See how effective it is compared to the "gold standard"

Costs the most money in this phase

Phase 2 of Clinical Trials

Efficacy= Capacity for having a beneficial change or therapeutic effect

Large number of people

Usually a drug will fail here

"Not work as planned" or Toxic effects

Phase 1 of Clinical Trials

Focus on safety

Healthy individuals

Small number of people

Figuring out dose ranging

What phase is it marketed?

After phase 3

What happens if you violate FDA?

Inspections and investigations

Warning letters




Clivil Lawsuit



Something that is not supposed to be there

Roles of the FDA

Regulate drugs&tests&biologics&labeling and post market surveillance


Something wrong with how it is labeled not correct

Mission of the FDA

To promote and protect

Ensure that food and medical products are safe and effective

Does not dictate medical practice or service

What role can plant biotechnology play in the world (applications)

Protect crops from disease

Increase the yield of food crops

Reduce the need for pesticides

Improve nutritional value of food

Make plant based medicines and vaccines

Provide a source for better and more sustainable biofuels

Help to protect the environment

What is considered natural and what is considered GM with regards to food?

Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally

Natural are foods that aren't altered in anyway shape or form

Which breeding methods are considered natural and can be labeled “natural” and which would be GM (unnatural)

GM breeding methods: gene splicing, agrobacterium tumefaciens, gene guns, antisense technology

Natural food breeding methods: Selective Breeding, Hybridization, Grafting, Mutation Breeding

Genetically modified?

The use of modern biotechnology techniques to change the DNA of an organism, such as a plant or animal

Transgenic Organisms?

An organism that has a gene from another species inserted into their genome

Recombinant Technology?

Involves inserting a gene from one organism into another though the use of a cloning vector

Recombinant DNA molecule?

The result of ligase is added to "glue" the sugar phosphate backbone together and seal the DNA fragments together

Such as a plasmid carrying the gene of interest

Why can transgenic organisms be useful to society?



Industrial Applications

Environmental Applications

Gene Therapy and Disease Research

Cloning Vector?

What you attach your gene to for transfer into the other organisms, plasmid is the most common.

Bacterphages are another type they are modified so that they transport DNA but don't cause disease.

Stemcell, Viruses and Bacterial artificial chromosomes and also be vectors

Characteristics of all stem cells that make them useful to doctors and researchers

They are pluripotent meaning that they can form any cell type (except placetra) Over 220 possible cell types

What does undifferentiated mean?

Biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells.

They are found in multicellular organisms.

What are the three kinds of stem cells?

Embryonic Stem Cells: Come from a five to six-day-old embryo. They have the potential to form virtually any type of cell found in the human body

Adult Stem Cells

iPS cells

What are pluripotent, Multipotent, Totipotent?

Pluripotent: cells that can form into any cell type expect placetra

Multipotent: More differentiated cells, but can form a number of different cell types within a cell line

Totipotent: They have the potential to develop into any cell found in the human body form a zygote

What are the myths and facts?


Removing a mothers fetus from her

There are body parts on the embryo recognizing them as humans

It is illegal


Never taken from the women's body and are created in the lab

They are blastocysts and nothing is recognizable

No option on either for or against by the government

Embryonic stem cell debate

Removing the embryonic stem cells from the blastocyst destroys the embryo

Destroying a living person because this blastocyst could potentially grow

Science is going to far

Advantages and Disadvantages of embryonic stem cells?

iPS cells?

Cells created from adult cells or adult cells that are reverted back to be embryonic like undifferentiated

Does the creation of iPS cells destroy an embryo?


Advances and Disadvantages of working with iPS cells?


Does not destroy or create

Same potential as embryonic stem cells

Less tissue rejection potentint since cells are from the patient's own body


Very little is known

needed stem cell research

same epigenetics patterns?

there is the potential for rejection

What are adult stem cells? Where are they found in the body?

Typically found among specialized or differentiated cells in a tissue or organ. They are more differentiated than Embryonic

Advantages and disadvantages of Adult Stem Cells?


Match the patient's own cells

Lack of converse

Most research


Exist in small numbers

Difficult to identify, isolatem purify and grow in the lab

Where are embryonic stem cells taken from?

early stage embryos called blastocyst

what is most important about a proteins ability to perform it's function?


What is the purpose of performing protein electrophoresis? (SDS-PAGE)

Determining the proteins before putting them into the gel

How many proteins are in my sample?

Molecular weight of the proteins?


How pure is the sample?

How much protein?

What causes the proteins to move differently in the gel?

The amount of DNA

Why do we have to use a different gel?

The pores are way smaller in size

What does it mean when a gene is expressed or on?

It means that it is showing

How do genes code for proteins?

In translation though mRNA

What are proteins made up of and what type of bonds hold them together?

Chains of amino acids and Peptide bond

Analogy of how to make a protein

DNA is the cookbook

Ribosomes are the chefs

Directions for making the cake (proteins) have to get out of the nucleus and to the ribosomes

mRNA has to photocopy the recipe that goes to the cook

cook is ribosomes

tRNA brings the ingredients (amino acids) to the ribosome

What happens to the pre-mRNA before it can leave the cell to go to the ribosome?

The RNA needs to be modified in several ways

5' end needs to be capped

3' end has a poly A tail

Alternate Splicing Occur

How many genes do we have that code for how many proteins?

20,000 genes that code for approximately 100,000 proteins

What is splicing?

Before mRNA exits the nucleus it is cut and introns are removed leaving only exons

Alternate splicing?

A process where eons are removed from the pre mRNA

Allows for multiple proteins to be made

What direction is DNA read and what direction is it built?

3'-5' and 5'-3'


What is our epigenome?

is a pattern of the gene expression in a cell

What is the difference between our genome and our epigenome?

Our genome contains all the instructions for building and maintaining the parts of our body

Our epigenome is a pattern of the gene expression in a cell

Methylation and Acetylation

Methylation: Attach directly to the gene and usually turn off the gene

Acetylation: Loose = turn on tight= turn off

Which is fixed and which is environmental

Genome is fixed epigenome is environmental

Can epigenetic patterns be inherited? How?

Yes some epigenetic tags remain in place as genetic info passes from generation to generation epigenetic inheritance

What are some environmental impacts to our epigenome?

Diet, Toxins, Stress, Physical activity, hormones

What does it mean to silence a gene?

Occurs when a gene is turned off that would normally be expressed under normal conditions

What is RNAi and what does it stand for?

RNA interference and have control over which genes are active and how active they are

How could the use of the RNAi system help us treat disease? Which types?

It will help in immune response, identifying a gene function, medicine and bioengineering and it only helps with gene you need to turn off a gene

What triggers the RNAi system?

long-double stranded molecule

Why didn't all the worms experience a knockdown?

we gave them a protein that was developing so it only affected the kid ones

Importance of bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops and improves on methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data. A major activity in bioinformatics is to develop software tools to generate useful biological knowledge.


is a plot of results from an analysis done by electrophoresis automatic sequencing

What is a DNA barcode? What are the lines?

A unique DNA sequence that identifies each living thing in the same way that the unique pattern of bars in a universal product code identifies each consumer product

The lines are your DNA

When you BLAST a sequence what are you doing?

You will identify known sequence in the database