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22 Cards in this Set

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Modern synthesis

1.

Species

Group of populations that actually or potentially interbreed and are reproductively isolated.

Hardy/Weinberg equilibrium conditions

1. no mutations


2. no net movement of individuals.


3. population is large(chance alone wont alter allele freq.)


4. mating is random


5. offspring of possible matings equally likely to survive.

recessive refuge

diploidy which shelters rare, recessive alleles from selection.

heterozygote superiority

i.e. hybrid vigor.


masking effects of recessive alleles.

inbreeding depression

increased susceptibility to diseases,


reduced reproductive success.

clines

gradual variation that follows a geographic distribution.

ecotypes

distinct groups of phenotypes of the same species occupying different habitats.

Mullerian mimicry

2 or more harmful species come to mimic each others warning signals. (co-operation)

Batesian mimicry

harmless species mimics warning signals of harmful species. (cheating)

convergent evolution

unrelated species come to resemble each other as a result of adaptations to similar selection pressures.

divergent evolution

similar, related populations become dissimilar...can lead to new species.

sympatric speciation

without geographic isolation.


plants= polyploidy, hybridisation.


disruptive (preferential) selection.

Macroevolution- 4 patterns

1. phyletic change


2. cladogenesis


3. adaptive radiation


4. extinction

phyletic change

(anagenesis) gradual change within a single lineage over time.

cladogenesis

change produced by branching off of populations from each other to form new species.

adaptive radiation

rapid formation of new species from single ancestor...fill new ecological niche.

phylogenetic

evolutionary history.


taxon only of organisms from common ancestor.

biological species concept

see normal species definition...


-ves= doesnt apply to extinct or asexual species

morphological

similarities in body structures.



homologous structures

result of common ancestory

analogous structures

adaptation to similar environments.